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social science
systematic study of people
change that begins at conception and continues through the life span
life span approach
emphasizes developmental change
3 types of influence
1. normative age graded influences
2. normative history graded influences
3. non-normative or highly individualizedlife events
normative age graded influences
puberty, menopause
normative history graded influences
great depression, world war I
non-normative graded influences
death of parent, loss of home due to disaster
nationality, race, religion, and language
behavior patterns and beliefs passed down through generations
socioeconomic status
occupation, education, and economic characteristics
a group of people born at a similar point in history sharing the same beliefs and similar experiences
biological processes
changes in person's physical nature
cognitive processes
changes in person's thought, intelligence, and language
socioemotional processes
changes in a person's relationships, emotions, and personality
developmental period
time frame in a person's life that is characterized by certain features
stability-change issue
debate about the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change
continuity-discontinuity issue
debate about the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change, or distinct stages
psychoanalyic theory
1. sigmund freud's theory--unconscious
2. erik erikson's theory--crisis
piaget's cognitive theory
4 stages
age related
vygotsky's sociocultural cognitive theory
emphasizes society and culture
no stages
information processing theory
emphasizes manipulating and processing information
bandura's sociocongnitive theory
ovservational learning (imitation and modeling)
evolution and biological
bronfrenbrenner's ecological theory
focuses on 5 environmental systems:
1. microsystem
2. mesosystem
3. exosystem
4. macrosystem
5. chronosystem
scientific method
four step process:
1. conceptualize a problem or process
2. research
3. analyze
5. draw conclusions
specific assertions and predictions that can be tested
correlational research
is there a relationship?
how intense or mild?
cause and effect
independent variable
variable being manipulated or changed
dependent variable
variable that changes in response; resulting effect
case study
in depth look at one single individual
cross-sectional approach
individuals of different ages are compared at one time
longitudal approach
same individuals are studied over a period of time; usually several years or more
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