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social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory
the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impace of the situation and to overestimate the impact of person disposition
attitude
a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
social facilitation
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal that when individually accountable
deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occuring in group situation that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
self-fulfilling prophecy
occurs when one person's belief about others leads one to act in ways that induce the others to appear to confirm the belief
prejudice
an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
stereotype
a generalized belief about a group of people
ingroup
"us" - people with whome one shares a common identity
outgroup
"them" - those perceived as different of apart from one's ingroup
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
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