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1929 Hubble
Galaxies flying away - Big Bang Theory
Modern Physics
Theory of Relativity, Quantum Theory
Relativity Space * Time
Sp. of Light constant, all else relative, laws hold up at rest, constant speed, or constant acceleration
Relativity Length contraction
relative velocity between 2 people, proper length is person doing experiment, observer will see a shorter length
Time Dilation
Observerance takes longer because of light, Time will slow in an accelerated acceleration
can we get to speed of light?
no, it is pure energy
Theory of relativity
1 all laws of physics hold in frames of reference at rest, constant speed, accelerating 2 anything done in a gravity frame of reference behaves the same in an acceleration frame 3 mass * weight are equal
more theory of relativity
mass and weight are equal, gravity will slow time, gravity will bend space and time
singularity
no laws of physics exist - infinite mass in an infinitely small area
redshift
wavelength getting longer - moving away
quanta
packet of energy, e = nhf
electromagnetic radiation and subatomic particle
same thing in different states
experiment 1
light turned into emr
photon
packet of electromagnetic radiation, a quanta, gives energy in free electron
each photon releases
a photoelectron, more photoelectrons = more photons = brighter light (more intense)
higher frequency
higher energy
work function
amount of energy necessary to break bond of electron
threshfold frequency
minimum amt of energy to break bond of electron (work function), different in different metals
experiment 2 - compton effect
scattering explosion give up some of energy, glancing collision between x-ray photon and electron at rest CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
experiment 3 - debroglie
"Any moving particle has a wavelength" Debroglie wavelength Electron gives up all energy to produce a photon
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
if a quantum particle has particle properties and wave properties, we can't study both at the same time (location and wavelength)
rutherford
discovered a (+) charged nucleus
solar system model
electrons like planets, nucleus like sun
electron exist on
certain energy levels
Principal
symbol n, values 1,2,3..., concepts: 1 allowed radius of orbit n^2*asubknot 2 allowed energy (ionization energy)
Orbital
l, values 0,1,2,3...n-1 concepts: 1 angular momentum 2 shape of orbit (higher l more eliptical)
magnetic
Msubl, values -l,...,l, concepts 1 orientation of orbit, 2 zeeman effect (each spectral light splits into 3)
Zeeman Effect
Each spectal light splits into 3
electron drop to 1 level
radiation is uv radiation (lyman)
electron drop to 2 level
radiation is visible light (balmer)
electron drop to 3 level
radiation is infrared light
rhydberg equation
solves for wavelength
spectroscopy
study of atomic spectrum
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