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Age of Discovery
AKA: The age of exploration

Started in the early 15th century until the 17th century

Searched for alternative trade routes. Motivated by gold, silver, and spices
Christopher Columbus
Born Republic of Genoa

Intended on sailing to Asia.

Rejected by Portugal

Rejected by Spain.

Got funding for exploration by Spain

Pinta & Nina were caravels. Santa Maria was his flagship.

First reached land October 12, 1492
God, gold, Glory
Motivations of European explorers.

God- Some explorers were missionaries or escaping religious persecution

Gold- explorers were in search of gold and resources for profit

Glory- Personal fame or glory for their country
Ferdinand and Isabella
Monarchs of Spain.

Sought the unification of Spain through Christianity.

Originally rejected Columbus but accepted his offer April 17th, 1492
Vasco De Gama
Portuguese explorer.

First European to reach India through sea.

Went around Africa.
Cortez and Pizzaro
Both conquistadors. Both became very rich.

Cortez- Mexico 1519

Lead expedition with 600 soldiers into Aztec empire

Used Aztec belief that he was a god to his advantage.

Pizzaro- Peru 1531

Brought 150 other conquistadors.

Also believed to be a god.

Killed Inca king and declared himself the new ruler.

Eventually melted down gold from imperial palace walls.
Native American slave labor established by Spanish crown.
Protestant reformation
Began in Germany in 1517 with Martin Luther.

Want to stop the organizational structure of catholicism and return to the simplicity of the original christian faith
John Winthrop
Wealthy English Puritan lawyer.

Elected governor of Massachusetts bay colony on October 1629 and served for 12 of colonies first 20 years of existence.

Vision of \"city upon a hill\"

Influenced government and religion of neighboring colonies.

Fall 1620 Sixty seven colonists aboard the Mayflower sail for New England.

Formed new England

Land in November. Half the pilgrims died the first winter. Summer brought crops and assistance from Indians. Celebration of first thanksgiving in 1621.
Protestants who wanted to purify Christianity.

Accept the bible as the source of authority and eliminating the hierarchy of church officials in favor of government.

Separated from England and set sail for Holland in the winter of 1608-1609. Dutch culture offered too many temptations and Catholic Spain threatened to conquer Holland and crush the protestants, so they left for new England in the fall of 1620 on the Mayflower with the pilgrims.

Formed the Massachusetts Bay colony and became Puritans
Massachusetts Bay colony
English settlement in the 17th century founded by owners of Massachusetts Bay company

Population was strongly Puritan.

Engaged in trade with England and the West indies
Church of England

Founded by King Henry the VIII\'s daughter, Elizabeth, and at the beginning of her reign in 1559.

Believe the Catholic faith is revealed in holy scripture and the Catholic creeds. Celebrate the traditional sacraments.
Settlement Virginia, first permanent English settlement in the Americas.

Established by the Virginia company of London as \"James fort\" on May 14, 1607.

105 survivors of a harsh voyage formed the settlement.

Site was populated upon a marsh with foul water and malaria-bearing mosquitoes. Supplies dwindled and disease killed many. By January of 1608 only thirty eight remained.
William Bradford
English separatist leader of settlers at Plymouth colony in Massachusetts.

Served as governor for over thirty years
John smith
Leader of Virginia colony between September 1608 and August 1609.

First to map Chesapeake Bay area and New England.

Thought farming and livestock should be goal of colony instead of gold.

Ousted and sent back to England in 1609
Roger Williams
Was twenty seven when he came to the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1631.

Did did not associate with those who did not denounce the church of England, and questioned the ethical matter of taking land from the Indians.

Became the minister of Salem but was forced out of his position by Winthrop and the General court.

In October 1635,Williams was banished and given six weeks to leave the colony.
William Penn
Son of an admiral of the English navy and member of the quakers.

Founder of the province of Pennsylvania, the English north American colony, and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

In 1681, king Charles II gave him land to satisfy a debt the king owed to his father. The land was named penn\'s woods or \"Pennsylvania\"

Penn negotiated treaties and land purchases with Indians instead of using violence.
Benjamin Franklin
Born in 1706 in Boston. Moved to Philadelphia in October 1723.

Apprenticed at his brother James\' printing business.
Married Deborah Read

Invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glad armonica. Facilitated civic organizations such as the fire department and a university.
Great Awakening
Colony-wide religious upsurge of the 1730s and 1740s led by John Edwards.

Thought to be a precursor of the American Revolution. The evangelical movement developed a democratic thought as well as the belief of free press and that info should be shared, unbiased, and uncontrolled.
George Whitefield
English Anglican preacher who spread the Great Awakening in Britain and colonies.
Albany Congress
June 19-July 11,1754

AKA The Albany conference and the Conference in Albany.

Meeting of Representatives from the northern seven of the thirteen British colonies. Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, new Hampshire, new York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island.

Discussed better relations with Indians and common defensive measures against the French. Tension led to the French and Indian war.
John Locke
Most influential of enlightenment thinkers.

His theory was that human beings were a blank slate at birth, ready for the input of data.
Proclamation of 1763
Issued October 7, 1763.

Forbade occupation of the West
Seven Years War
Took place between 1756 and 1763.

Between Great Britain and colonies against France in North America.

Also called the French and Indian War
Stamp Act
British parliament imposed tax set on colonies.

Required that many printed materials produced on stamped paper produced in London. Materials included legal documents, magazines, newspapers, and many other papers.
Declaratory Act
Repealed the stamp and sugar act because of American boycotts.
Townshend Duties
Series of taxes introduced into Parliament by Chancellor of the Exchequer Charles Townshend in 1767.
The acts imposed duties on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea imported into the colonies.
Created a Board of Customs Commissioners to enforce the laws.
The hope was a to prevent the accused from going before a jury.
George Washington
Commander in Chief of the Continental Army during American Revolutionary War (beat the British.)
Wrote U.S. Constitution.
First U.S. President.
Tea Act/ Boston Tea Party
Act of Parliament of Great Britain.
Sell excess tea at a reduced price to save British East India Company.
No tax for British to export and import tea into North America.
Colonists opposed they would be acknowledging the British\'s right to tax the colonists.
Group of colonists destroyed taxed tea that was supposed to be sent to Britain.
Enlightenment/Age of Reason
Major figure was a Benjamin Franklin.
People questioned traditional authority and believed the nation could be changed through rationality.
A time when European philosophy, science, and communications were radically changed.
Reason and observation without organized religion is enough to determine that the universe is a creation and has a creator.
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams who was the second President of the United States and mother of John Quincy Adams IV.
First second lady of the United States.
Remembered for the letters she wrote to her husband while he was in PA.
John Adams
Leader of the America revolution.
Second US president.
Began as a lawyer.
Viewed the British as oppressive because of their high tax.
Was a delegate to the Continental congress.
Helped negotiate Treaty of Paris.
Declaration of Independence
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson.
Declared America\'s independence from England.
Mystic Massacre
English settlers and Captain John Mason set fire to the Pequot village near the Mystic River.
May. 26, 1637.
Shays Rebellion
Rebellion that took place in Massachusetts.
Named after one of the rebel leaders Daniel Shays (veteran of American Revolutionary War.)
They shut down courts to stop hearings for debt collections.
Articles of Confederation
First constitution of the US.
Specified how the government was to a parade including an adoption official name for the new nation.
Drafted in June 1776 and ratified November 1777.
Constitutional Convention
Addressed problems in governing the US.
James Madison and Alexander Hamilton wanted to create a new government.
Resulted in United States Constitution.
US Constitution
Supreme law of the US.
The first three articles establish the rules and separate powers into three branches of government.
Executive, legislative, and judicial.
Kit Carson
American Frontier man, trapper, and Indian Fighter. Lived among Indian tribes and married a Native American woman. Hero of Dime Novels and helped promote exploration of the West
Abagail Adams
Wife of John Adams and mother of John Quincy Adams. Wrote letter to Adams while he was at constitutional convention telling him to "remember the ladies". Activist for civil and womens rights.
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