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What is 3DES (AKA as Triple Digitial Encryption Standard (DES).
A symmetric block cipher algorithm used for encryption.
What is 802.1x
The IEEE standard that defines port-based security for wireless network access control. It offers a means of authentication and defines the Extensible authentication Protocol (EAP) over IEEE 802, and it is often known as EAP over LAN (EAPOL).
What is AAA?
Acronym for three key areas of security: Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting.
What is acceptable use policy (AUP)
Agreed-upon principles set forth by a company to govern how the employees of that company may use resources such as computers and Internet access.
What is an access attack?
An attack aimed at gaining access to resources.
What is access control?
The means of giving or restricting user access to network resources. Access control is usually accomplished through the use of an access control list (ACL).
What is access control list (ACL) ?
A table or data file that specifies whether a user or group has access to a specific resource on a computer or network.
What is an access point (AP)?
The point at which access to a network is accomplished. This term is often used in relation to a wireless access point (WAP).
What is accountability?
Being responsible for an item. The administrator is often accountable for the network and the resources on it.
What is accounting?
The act of keeping track of activity. Most often, this term is used to refer to tracking users’ interactions with network resources via log files that are routinely scanned and checked.
What is an acknowledgement (ACK)?
A message confirming that a data packet was received. Acknowledgment is a TCP function and occurs at the Transport layer of the Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI) and TCP/IP models.
What is an active response?
A response generated in real time.
What is active sniffing?
Involves an attacker gaining access to a host in the network through a switch and logically disconnecting it from the network.
What is activity?
Any action a user undertakes.
What is Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
Protocol used to map known IP addresses to unknown physical addresses.
What is AD-IDS Anomaly-detection intrusion detection system.
An AD-IDS works by looking for deviations from a pattern of normal network traffic.
What are administrative policies
A set of rules that govern administrative usage of a system.
What is an administrator?
The user who is accountable and responsible for the network.
What is Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)?
A FIPS publication that specifies a cryptographic algorithm for use by the U.S. government. See also Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS).
What is adware?
Software that gathers information to pass on to marketers or that intercepts personal data such as credit card numbers and makes them available to third parties.
What is AES256?
An implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) that uses 256-bit encryption. alert A notification that an unusual condition exists and should be investigated.
What is an algorithm?
The series of steps/formulas/processes that is followed to arrive at a result.
What is a analyzer?
The component or process that analyzes the data collected by the sensor.
What is annualized loss expectancy (ALE)?
A calculation that is used to identify risks and calculate the expected loss each year.
What is annualized rate of occurrence (ARO)?
A calculation of how often a threat will occur. For example, a threat that occurs once every five years has an annualized rate of occurrence
of 1/5, or 0.2.

What is an anomaly detection?
The act of looking for variations from normal operations (anomalies) and reacting to them.
What is anonymous authentication?
Authentication that doesn’t require a user to provide a username, password, or any other identification before accessing resources.
What is antivirus?
A category of software that uses various methods to prevent and eliminate viruses in a computer. It typically also protects against future infection. See also virus.
What is an antivirus engine?
The core program that runs the virus-scanning process.    antivirus software Software that identifies the presence of a virus and is capable of removing or quarantining the virus.
What is an appliance?
A freestanding device that operates in a largely self-contained manner.
What is the Application layer ?
The seventh layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. This layer deals with how applications access the network and describes application functionality,such as file transfer, messaging, and so on.
What is an application programming interface (API)?
An abstract interface to the services and protocols provided by an operating system.
What is an amored virus?
A virus that is protected in a way that makes disassembling it difficult. The difficulty makes it “armored” against antivirus programs that have trouble getting to, and understanding, its code.
What is ARP Table?
The table that the Address Resolution Protocol uses. Contains a list of known IP addresses and their associated physical addresses. The table is cached in memory so that ARP lookups don’t have to be performed for frequently accessed addresses. See also Media Access Control (MAC).
What is an asset?
Any resource of value that you want to secure and protect.
What is an asymmetric algorithm ?
An algorithm that utilizes two keys.
What is an asymmetric encryption?
Encryption in which two keys must be used. One key is used to encrypt data, and the other is needed to decrypt the data. Asymmetric encryption is the opposite of symmetric encryption, where a single key serves both purposes.
What is an attack?
Any unauthorized intrusion into the normal operations of a computer or computer network. The attack can be carried out to gain access to the system or any of its resources.
What are audit files?
Files that hold information about a resource’s access by users.
What is auditing?
Auditing is the act of tracking resource usage by users.
What are auditors?
Individuals involved in auditing log and security files.
What is authenticating the evidence?
Verifying that the logs and other resources collected are legitimate. This technique can be useful in verifying that an attack has occurred.
What is authentication?
The means of verifying that someone is who they say they are.
What is an Authentication Header (AH)?
A header used to provide connectionless integrity and data origin authentication for IP datagrams and to provide protection against replays.
What is ability?
The ability of a resource to be accessed, often expressed as a time period. Many networks limit users’ ability to access network resources to working hours, as a security precaution.
What is backdoor?
An opening left in a program application (usually by the developer) that allows additional access to data. Typically, these are created for debugging purposes and aren’t documented. Before the product ships, the back doors are closed; when they aren’t closed, security loopholes exist.
What is backup?
A usable copy of data made to media. Ideally, the backup is made to removable media and stored for recovery should anything happen to the original data.
What is a backup plan?
A documented plan governing backup situations.
What is a backup policy?
A written policy detailing the frequency of backups and the location of storage media.
What is a Bell-LaPadula model?
A model designed for the military to address the storage and protection of classified information. This model is specifically designed to prevent unauthorized access to classified information. The model prevents the user from accessing information that has a higher security rating than they are authorized to access. It also prevents information from being written to a lower level of security. best practices A set of rules governing basic operations.
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