Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019



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Potassium normal range
3.5-5 mEq/L
Mild hypokalemia
3.1-3.5 mEq/L
moderate HYPOkalemia
2.5-3.0 mEq/L
severe hyPOkalemeia
< 2.5 mEq/L
hyPOkalemia etiology dietary intake
high sodium intake, too much diuretics
hyPOkalemia etiology intracellular shift
-alkalosis
-insulin administration
-glucose administration
-beta agonists
-low magnesium
epinephrine
Beta receptor agonist
albuterol
Beta receptor agonist
terbutaline
Beta receptor agonist
pirbuterol
Beta receptor agonist
salmeterol
Beta receptor agonist
isoproterenol
Beta receptor agonist
ephedirne
Beta receptor agonist
psueoephedrine
Beta receptor agonist
transcellular shift
theophylline, caffein, insulin overdose
acetazolamide
diuretic
indapamide
diuretic
metolazone
diuretic
ethacrynic acid
diuretic
nafcillin
high dose penicillin
ampicillin
high dose penicillin
penicillin
high dose penicillin
drug incduced micellaneous
aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, cisplatin
drug induced laxatives
sodium polystyrene sulfonate, phenolphthalein, sorbitol
hypokalemia presentation EKG changes
flattened T waves, ST segment depression, PR prolongation
hypolalemia presentation  heart
bradycardia, heart block, arrythmias
hypokalemia treatment  mild to moderate
oral preps; diuretics 40-100mEq/day
hypolalemia treatment severe
IV calcium g
potassium deficit equation
(4.0 - serium K) x 100
rules for IV potassium
-always place in saline vehicle, max concentration  = 80mEq/L
max rate for peripheral line potassium
10mEq/h
max rate for central line potassium
40mEq/h
mild hyPERkalemia
5.1-5.9 mEq/L
moderate hyPERkalemia
6.0-6.9mEq/L
severe hyPERkalemia
>7.0mEq/L
Addison's Disease
can't producse enough cortisols and aldosterone;
adrenal insufficieny, can't excrete enough K
ACE-I/ARBS
prevent aldosterone production, retain K
NSAIDS
prevent production of prostagladins, reduceses blood flow, prevents renin from being produced, repvent aldosterone, keep K
bactrim
contains trimethoprim which is similar to k sparing diuretic
hyPERkalemia presentation
-muscle weakness, parathesias (thingling sensation), hypotension
hyPERkalemia presentation EKG
-peak waves > 6, widened PR interval, widened QRS complex; arrythmias, acidosis
hyPERkalemia treatment severe
Ca+ gluconate in D5W to stabilize myocardium
hyperkalemia treatment intracellular shift (temporary)
regular insulin  5-10 units IV bolus; may need infusion with metabolic acidosis
dextrose IV push: stimulates insulin secretion
hyPERkalemia treatment intracellular shift increase insulin secretion with
albuterol 10-20mg nebulized; stimulates insulin secretion; 
tachycardia
hyPERkalemia treatment preferred in metabolic acidosis
Na bicarbonate
increase K+ excretion by 
(definitive)
20-40mg IV loops (furosemide)
sodium polystyrene sulfonate (kayexalate, 15-60gm QID, dd in sorbitol)
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