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Physicians who specialize in clinical treatment of disorders of the female and male urinary systems are called___________________
Urologists
______________ specialize in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease, kidney transplantation, and dialysis.
Nephrologists
What is the urinary system composed of?
Kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
What are the main functions of the kidneys?
Regulate the amount of water in the body and keep the body fluids at a constant concentration and acid-base level.
cyst/o
bladder
vesic/o
bladder
glomerul/o
glomerulus
meat/o
opening, meatus
nephr/o
kidney
ren/o
kidney
pyel/o
renal pelvis
ur/o
urine, urinary tract
urin/o
urine, urinary tract
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
-emia
blood condition
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
-lysis
separation; destruction; loosening
-pathy
disease
-pexy
fixation (of an organ)
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
-tripsy
crushing
-uria
urine
What is the name of a cluster of capillaries forming the structural and functional unit of the kidney known a the nephron?
Glomerulus
What are the functions that the kidneys perform?

  • Remove waste products from the blood and excrete them in the urine

  • Regulate the body's tissue fluid

  • maintain a balance of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium)

  • Maintain an acid-base balance in the blood

Congenital abnormal opening of the urethra upon the undersurface of the penis is called_______________
Hypospadias
Abnormal production of large amounts of urine
Diuresis
Involuntary discharge of urine after the age by which bladder control should have been established.
(also called bed-wetting when it occurs at night)
Enuresis
Painful or difficult urination, symptomatic of numerous conditions.
Dysuria
About Interstitial Nephritis???

  • Nephritis associated with pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue

  • May be primary or due to a toxic agent (a drug reaction or infection)

  • The end result is the nephrons are destroyed and renal function is seriously impaired.

High blood pressure that results from kidney disease
Renal Hypertension
What 3 things indicate End-Stage renal disease?

  • The final phase of a kidney disease process

  • Disease has advanced to the point that the kidneys can no longer adequately filter the blood.

  • Treatment is limited to dialysis and transplant

What is it called when a rapidly developing kidney tumor ocurs in children and the cause is unknown?
Wilms Tumor
What are physical, chemical and microscopic analysis of urine called?
Urinalysis
Elevated level or urea or other protein waste products in the blood
Uremia
An increase in nitrogenous compounds, especially urea, in urine.
Azoturia (azoturea)
Laboratory test which measures the amount of urea in the blood.
High levels usually indicate impaired kidney function since area is normally excreted by the kidney
Blood urea nitrogen
In radiography this term is used to describe location, size, shape and malformations of the Kidneys, Ureters, and Bladder.
KUB
Determines renal function and shape using a radioactive substance which concentrates in the kidney
Renal Scan
Radiographic procedure which views the entire urinary system.
Intravenous contrast medium and serial x-ray films are used.
Intravenous Pyelogram
Insertion of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to insert or remove fluid. Most commonly used to describe insertion of a catheter into the bladder through the urethra.
Catheterization
Radiographic procedure using a contrast medium inserted by catheter directly into the bladder. From there, it travels into the ureters.
Retrograde Pyelography
Contrast medium is used to study the bladder and the urethra during the process of voiding urine
Voiding Cystourography
Plain Old X-rays
KUB - x-ray of kidney, ureters, and bladder
Pyelography
Radiographic study after injection of a contrast agent.
What method injects contrast medium, examines by x-ray (eg, Look for stones). 

Image = pyelogram or urogram 
IVP - Intravenous pyelography
IVP is also called:
IVU - Intravenous Urography
EU - Excretory Urography
 
What is a non-intravenous method
A catheter through the urethra to inject contrast medium
RP - Retrograde pyelography
Study the bladder ureters, and kidneys. E.G. find blockage
VCUG - Voiding cystourethrogram/voiding cystourethrophy
Use x-ray to observe the bladder and urethra while voiding.
What is it called when the patient's blood is cleansed by circulation through a dialysis machine which acts as an artificial kidney.
Renal Dialysis
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