by mss422


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gymnosperms
category of living seed plants - pines and cycads
angiosperms
category of living seed plants - flowering plants, fruit
pollen grain
male micro-gametophyte
pollination
when a pollen grain lands near a female gametophyte
pollen tube
in pollination, a ________ forms, makes it way to megametophyte and releases sperm; fertilization creates a diploid zygote --> divides into embryonic sporophyte --> becomes multicellular seed
megametaphyte
female gametophyte
cycads
group of living gymnosperms - palm-like, tropical
ginkgos
group of living gymnosperms - fan-shaped leaves, 1 living species
gnetophytes
group of living gymnosperms - has only 2 leaves that split during growth
conifers
group of living gymnosperms - cone bearers, pine and conifer trees, needle or scale-like leaves; cones contain reproductive structures; dominate many forests
coastal redwoods
tallest gymnosperms
pine life cycle
in ________, wind carries pollen grains from male cone to female cone, 2 sperm travel through pollen tube, 1 fertilizes egg and other degenerates
double fertilization (in angiosperms)
in ___________, microgametophyte has two male gametes, nucleus of one combines with egg, other nucleus combines with two haploid nuclei of the female gametophyte to form a triploid nucleus which becomes the endosperm, endosperm nourishes developing sporophyte
carpel
modified leaf of angiosperm that encloses ovules and seeds, provides protection
xylem
contains vessel elements specialized for water transport in angiosperms
woody
_______ angiosperms show secondary growth
phloem
contains companion cells in angiosperms
fiber cells
cells in angiosperms that support plant body
flowers
angiosperm; all parts are modified leaves, color attracts insects
stamen
part of flower that bears microsporangia; consists of filament and anther
carpel
part of flower that bears megasporangia; forms pistil
pistil
female part of flower; consists of stigma, style, ovary and ovule; formed from one or more carpels; stigma receives pollen
petals and sepals
parts of flower that attract animal pollinators, protects immature flower
1. corolla
2. calyx
3. perianth
1. groups of petals
2. groups of sepals
3. both make up ______
perfect flowers
______ have both mega and microsporangia; favor self-pollination, usually disadvantageous
imperfect flowers
_________ have either megasporangia or microsporangia
monoecious
male and female flowers occur on same plant
dioecious
male and female flowers occur on different plants
angiosperm life cycle
in ________, ovule develops into a seed with a diploid zygote and triploid endosperm; embryo consists of a diploid axis to become stem and root and at least one cotyledon
cotyledons
seed leaves
x of y cards