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Definite discrete amount of energy required to move an electron from lower shell to higher shell
Elektron means
Typically, how much energy is required for a valence electron to move to the conduction band for a doped semiconductor
0.05 eV
The difference in energy between the valence and conduction band of semiconductor
band gap
What is energy gap
the space between two orbital shells
Region that separates valence band and conduction band
energy gap or forbidden band
Area that separates valence band and conduction band
forbidden band
Conduction of electrons in a doped semiconductor happens at
conduction band
Conduction of holes in a doped semiconductor happens at
valence band
Donor level is near
conduction band
Acceptor level is near
valence band
Potential required to remove valence electron
ionization potential
Lowest voltage across any insulator that can cause current flow
breakdown voltage
A structure for solids in which the position of atoms are predetermined
A solid with no defined crystal structure
non-crystalline or amorphous
The chemical bond that is present in crystal lattice of silicon
Covalent bond
States that each electron in an atom must have a different set of quantum numbers
pauli exclusion principle
A principle that states that only two electrons with different spins are allowed to exist in a given orbit
Pauli exclusion principle
Gases with charged particles
Property of magnetic materials which retain magnetism after withdrawal of magnetizing force
The amount of magnetizing force to counter balance the residual magnetism of a magnetic material
The amount of magnetic field needed to remove residual magnetism from a transformer core during each half cycle is called
coercive force
Define residual magnetism
flux density in the iron core, when magnetic field intensity is reduced to zero
Gaussmeter measures
Magnetic Flux Density
The entire group of magnetic field lines flowing outward from the north pole of a magnet
magnetic flux
What is the lagging effect between the magnetizing force applied and the flux density
A changing magnetic field produces
Law describing the force of attraction or repulsion between two magnetic poles is directly proportional to their strengths
Coloumb\'s first law
Law where force of attraction or repulsion is inversely proporional to the square of the distance between them
Coloumb\'s second law
Law in which in electromagnetic induction, the current set-up by an induced voltage tends to create flux whose direction opposes any change in the existing flux
Lenz\' law
Law that determines polary of an induced voltage
Lenz\' law
Law that determines amount of induced voltage
Faraday\'s law
Law stating that electromotive force is induced whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux
Faraday\'s first law
Law stating that the electrmotive force induced when a conductor cuts magnetic flux, is directly proportional to its rate
Faraday\'s second law
Law stating that at unvarying temperature breakdown voltage in a uniform field is a function of the product of gas pressure and distance between the electrodes
Paschen\'s law
The charging of a capacitor through a resistance follows what law
exponential law
The effect describing the ability of a mechanically stressed ferromagnetic wire to recognize rapid switching of magnetization when subjected to a DC magnetic field
Wiegand Effect
The effect whereby a small voltage is generated by a conductor with current in an external magnetic field is known as
Hall effect
The effect which is generally used in the gaussmeter to measure flux density
Hall effect
What does a Hall Effect sensor sense
magnetic field
The phenomenon that when an electric current passes through an anisotropic crystal, there is an absorption or liberation of heat due to the non-uniformity in current distribution
Bridgman effect
A law stating that the magnetic susceptibilities of most paramagnetic substances are inversely proportional to their absoulte temperatures
Bridgman effect
Law stating that the current in a thermionic diode varies directly with the three-halves power of anode voltage
Child\'s Law
Law stating that when a constant electromotive force is applied to a circuit consisting of a resistor and a capacitor in series, the time taken for the potential of on the capactior to rise..
CR Law
States that the ratio of thermal conductivity is proportional to the absolute temperatures for all metals
Wiedmann Franz
The net electrical charge in an isolated system remains constant. This is known as
Law of conservation of charge
The emission of electrons from hot bodies is called
Edison effect
Resistance of a semiconductor
Bulk resistance
Trivalent impurities are acceptor or donors
Pentavalent impurities are acceptor or donors
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