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Sig fig rule when multiplying or dividing
Limit and round to the least number of significant figures in any of the factors
Sig fig rule when adding or subtracting
limit and round to the least number of digits after the decimal place
Name the units of Metric Measurement
Kilo, Hecto, Deca, gLm, Deci, Centi, Milli
Density equals
Mass/volume
Name the 5 steps of the Scientific Method
Problem, Hypothesis, expirament, observe, conclusion.
What is Matter?
Matter is anything that has mass and volume.
The atom is
the basic unit of matter
A molecule is
A neutral group of atoms held together by chemical bonds.
What are the physical states of matter
Solid, Liquid, Gas
What is a Pure Substance?
Matter composed of only one kind of atom or molecule.
What is a compound?
A pure substance composed of 2 or more chemically combined different elements.
What is a mixture?
A collection of two or more pure substances physically mixed together.
What is a Homogenous Mixture?
a mixture containing substances that are uniformly distributed.
What is a Heterogenous Mixture?
a mixture containing substances that are NOT evenly distributed.
What is a molecule?
a single particle composed of two or more non-metal atoms.
The law of Definite Composition is...
Compounds always contain the same elements in a constant proportion by mass.
Extensive properties of matter
Properties that depend on the quantity of matter, including mass, length, and Volume.
Intensive Properties of matter
properties that do NOT depend on the amount of matter.
What is a physical change?
A change that effects only physical properties of matter. You will have the same object in different forms.
What is a Chemical change?
a change that produces one or more new substances.
Kinetic energy is
Energy of motion
What is the formula for Kinetic Energy?
1/2mv^2
Democritus started using what word?
Atom- meaning "unable to divide"
Antoine Lavoisier
1787- was the father of modern Chemistry- created "law of conservation of matter"
Joseph Louis Proust
Law of Definite Composition-
Ions are formed by gaining or losing ??
Electrons
Electron charge?
Negatively
The number of valance electrons can be determined by
adding the two highest "s" and "p"s.
Rows in the Periodic tables are called
Periods
Columns in the Periodic tables are called
Groups or Families
The atomic radius and metallic charachter of an element reduces when you move to the
Right and up
Ionization Energy is
the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom.
The atom with the highest IE level on the periodic table
Hydrogen
A decomposition reaction starts with _ reactant(s) and ends up with _ product(s)
1 --- 2 or more.
A synthesis starts with _ reactant(s) and ends up with _ product(s)
2 --- 1
A single replacement reaction starts with _ reactant(s) and ends up with _ product(s)
2 --- 2
A double replacement starts with _ reactant(s) and ends up with _ product(s)
2 --- 2, Both products are compounds
When balancing an equation do the oxygen and hydrogen _
LAST
To balance an atomic equation start with the
most complex compound and work your way down so there are the same # of each element on each side.
One mole contains how many molecules?
6.02x10^23
These elements are diatomic...
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Flourine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine
Ionic Compounds are usually
Metal + NonMetal
Meolecular compounds are usually
NonMetal
Monatomic Ions consist of..
A single atom
A polyatomic Ion consists of
more than one atom.
Elements that show the charge in roman numerals are found in the _ family
Transition Metals
What elements do not need roman numerals?
Ag, Zn, Cd
A negatively charged ion is called an
Anion
to get the formula of Ions you use the
"criss Cross" method
Four things that are evidence of a Chemical Reaction
Temperature Change Gase Evolved Permanent Color Change Formation of a precipitate
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