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1. What do glands in the endocrine system release?
Hormones
2. What is the study of the science of the structure and function of the endocrine glands and the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders of the endocrine system?
Endocrinology
3. What do exocrine secrete their products into?
Ducts that carry the secretions into body cavities, lumen of an organ or to the outer surface of the body
4. Hormones influence their target cells by binding to what?
Receptors
5. What controls the pituitary gland?
Hypothalamus
6. What is the “master” endocrine gland (because it secretes several hormones that control other glands)?
Pituitary
7. The pituitary gland is divided into how many parts?
Two sections, an anterior and a posterior
8. If too much growth hormone is secreted, what condition can result?
Gigantism
9. What hormone do the testes secrete?
Testosterone
10. What hormone is released during pregnancy to increase the flexibility of the pubic symphysis?
Relaxin
11. Where do endocrine glands secrete their products?
Into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secretory cells
12. What are the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland?
Human growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and adrenocortictropic hormone
13. What is the purpose of antidiuretic hormone?
Conserves body water by decreasing urine volume
14. What is the purpose of the thyroid hormones?
Increase metabolism, stimulate synthesis of proteins, and accelerate body growth
15. Where are the adrenal glands located?
Superior to the kidneys
16. Where is the pituitary gland located?
In the sella tursica
17. What does cortisol do?
Provides resistance to stress; it is an anti-inflammatory, it forms glucose and it breaks down proteins
18. What is the pineal gland?
A small endocrine gland attached to the roof of the third ventricle of the brain at the midline
19. What is stress?
It prepares us to meet certain challenges and thus is productive
20. What is distress?
It is harmful and may lower resistance to infection by temporarily inhibiting certain components of the immune system
21. What is diabetes mellitus?
It is the inability to produce or use insulin
22. What is the purpose of a target cell?
It acts as a hormone receptor
23. Where is TSH secreted?
Thyoid gland
24. What is the purpose of insulin and what disease is characterized by its absence?
To lower glucose levels when they get too high; diabetes mellitus
25. What are signs/symptoms of Myxedema?
Puffy face, cold, dry hair and skin, lethargy, weight gain
26. What gender does Graves’s disease affect more?
Females
27. What secretes melatonin?
Melatonin, which contributes to the function of the body’s biological clock, is secreted by the pineal gland
28. What causes Type I diabetes?
A deficiency of insulin
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