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Define "standards"
documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria that serve as guidelines to ensure that materials, products, processes, and services suit their purpose
Name 5 significant networking standards organizations.
1) American National Standards Institute; 2) Electronic Industries Alliance; 3) Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers; 4) International Organization for Standardization; 5) International Telecommunications Union (formerly the CCITT)
Name the 7 layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model.
1) Physical; 2) Data Link; 3) Network; 4) Transport; 5) Session; 6) Presentation; 7) Application -- "Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away"
What does the Physical Layer contain?
The physical networking medium, such as cabling, connectors, and repeaters
What do protocols at the Physical layer do?
they generate and detect voltage, to transmit and receive signals carrying data
Name 2 responsibilities of the Physical Layer
it sets the data transmission rate and monitors data error rates. It does not provide error correction
What does the Data Link Layer bridge?
it bridges the networking media with the abstract software and data streams
What is the Data Link Layer's primary function?
to divide data it receives from the Network Layer into frames that can be transmitted by the Physical layer
What devices work in the Data Link layer?
connectivity devices such as bridges and switches, because they decode frames and use the frame information to transmit data to its correct recipient
What does the Network Layer manage?
it manages addressing, routing, and segmentation and reassembly of packets
Which OSI Layer do routers operate in?
routers belong to the Network Layer because they use addressing, usage patterns, and availability to intelligently direct data from sender to receiver
What is the Transport Layer's primary responsibility?
ensuring data arrives reliably, even across segments. the Transport Layer checks the order or sequence of frames and checks errors
What is the function of the Session Layer?
establishing and maintaining communication between two nodes on the network
What is the function of the Presentation Layer?
translates between the application and the network. At the Presentation layer, data are formatted in a schema that the network can understand; this format varies with the type of network used
What layer handles encryption?
The Presentation Layer manages encryption and decryption, such as the scrambling of passwords
What does the Application Layer provide?
It provides interfaces to the software that enable it to use network services
Name 3 services provided by the Application Layer.
file transfer, file management, and message handling for electronic mail
What are the two major categories of frame types?
Ethernet and Token Ring
What 2 types of addresses identify network nodes?
Network Layer addresses and Data Link Layer addresses
What are Data Link Layer addresses?
Addresses hardwired into the networking device, also called physical, MAC, or hardware addresses
What are Network Layer addresses?
Addresses assigned to devices through operating software, also called logical or virtual addresses
What is the structure of logical addresses?
They are hierarchical, so they can be easily interpreted by routers and used to direct data to their destinations
Give 5 examples of topics covered by IEEE networking specifications.
Frame types, networking media, error checking algorithms, encryption, emerging technologies
What is the umbrella name of IEEE's standardization of the elements of networking?
IEEE Project 802
What is the IEEE expansion of Data Link Layer
Two sublayers: the Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer and the Medium Access Control (MAC) sublayer
What does the Logical Link Control sublayer provide?
Reliability and flow control services
What does the Medium Access Control sublayer provide?
It appends the physical address of the destination computer onto the data frame
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