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Composed of glandular epithelium
Endocrine system
action is very brief
Nervous system
receptors are located on target cells
Endocrine system
speed of onset may take seconds to hours
endocrine system
uses neurotransmitters a chemical signals
nervous system
composed of neurons
Nervous System
receptors are located on postsynaptic cells
Nervous system
action may be brief or may last for days even if secretion stops
Endocrine System
uses hormones for chemical signals
Endocrine system
speed of onset just takes seconds
Nervous system
Regulated by negative feedback
nervous and endocrine systems
Cell to cell communication happens in what 4 ways?
1. Direct Communication
2. Paracrine
3. Endocrine
4. Synaptic communication
_______ communication occurs when same cell types-via ions, small solutes-through gap junctions.
______ is the type of communication where cells release secretion- affects only cells in nearby region (cell with receptors); made just before they are released.
_____ is the type of communication involving glandular cells release of hormones-bloodstream-target cells.
______ communication involves neurotransmitters from presynaptic cell to postsynaptic cells with receptors (postsynaptic neuron or effector).
What are the chemical classes of hormones?
1. amino acid derivatives
2. peptide hormones
3. lipid derivatives
4. steriod hormones
_______ derivatives are thyroid hormones, melatonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine.  (Nonsteriod)
amino acid
_____ hormones: most hormones- made of anywhere from 9-200 amino acids.  Typically synthesized a prohormones (inactive)- then activated before they are released. (Nonsteriod)
_____ derivatives: 2 types (steriods)

1. eicosanond 
2. steriod hormones
______ : made of C ring with fatty acid side chains; paracrine factors.

EX- leukotriens
_______ hormones: cholesterol based; ovaries, testes, adrenal cortex, kidneys.  Stay in circulation longer because they are bound to proteins.
Label this diagram
The endocrine system is composed of organs (glands) that release chemicals called _________.
The heart, kidneys, intestines also release hormones but endocrine functions is _________.
How do hormones recognize their target cells?
"Lock and key" hypothesis
Target cells have surface receptors (proteins with binding sites for specific hormones)
2 locations for receptors:
1- in cell membrane
2- cell plasma or cell neuclues
How do water soluable hormones (amino/peptide) affect cells?
1. body fluid carries hormones to its target cell (hormone is the first messanger)
2. combines with receptor site on membrane of its target cell, activating G protein (changes the concentration of cAMP)
3. Adenylate cylase molecules are activated within target cell's membrane
4. removes 2 phosphates from ATP to form cyclic AMP ((cAMP is the second messenger)
5. cAMP activates protein kinases (enzymes) which activate protein substrates in the cell that change metabolic processes (can also open ion channels which can accelerate cell activity)
6. Cellular changes produce homone's effects
When cAMP is decreased, it has an _______ effect on cells.
When cAMP is increased, it has an _____ effect on cells.
How do lipid soluble hormones (steriods) affect cells?
1. Gland releases hormone
2. crosses cell membrane (lipid soluable)
3. combines with a protein receptor (usually in the nucleus) but can be cytoplasm
4. initiates transcription of mRNA from DNA (activates a gene!)
5. mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm
6. guides the synthesis of encoded proteins (translation) which produce hormones specific effect
Thyroid homones bind to receptors on mitochondria and affect energy production and bind to _______ in nucleus which affects cell's metabolic activity by increasing or decreasing the concentration of specific enzymes.
What are osteoblast?
bone builders
What are osteoclast?
break down bones
Functions of Endocrine system
1. Regulate metabolic processes
2. controle rates of reactions
3. help transport substances through membranes
4. help regulate water and electrolyte balance
5. help regulate blood pressure
6. vital roles in reproduction,  developmental, and growth
"internal secretion" composed of glands, cells, and organs
The hypothalamus has 3 mechanisms of endocrine function:
1. It contains ______ that secrete ADH and OXT, which are released from the posterior pituitary.
2. It secretes ______ hormones that control the anterior pituitary (releasing and inhibitory).
3. Autonomic __________ stimulate the release of hormones from the adrenal medulla (adrenalin).
neurons; regulatory; sympathetic neurons
Where is the pituitary gland located?
sella turcia of spheniod bone
How many peptide hormones does the pituitary gland release?
How many of the 9 hormones released from the pituitary gland are from the anterior lobe (adenohypopysis)?
How many of the 9 hormones released from the pituitary gland are from the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)?
Tropic means to "___"
turn on
All 9 hormones from the pituitary gland bind to membrane receptors and use _____ as the 2nd messenger.
What are the 7 Anterior pituitary hormones?
1. TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone)
2. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
3. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
4. LH (luteinizing hormone)
5. Gh (growth hormone)
6. PRL (prolactin)
7. MSH (melanocyte)
What is TSH's target organ?
thyroid gland
What is TSH's action?
release T3 and T4 hormones
What is TSH's control factor?
TRH (thyroid-releasing hormone) from hypothalamus

hypothalamus detects nutrient levels
As thyroid hormones increase, less TRH is released-negative feedback
What is ACTH?
adrenocorticotropic hormone
What is ACTH's target organ?
What is ACTH's action?
release steriod hormones
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