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work
force exerted through a distance, transfer of energy through motion
Formula for work
W=F×d
distance must be in direction
of force
Mechanical advantage
The number of times a force exerted on a machine is multiplied by that machine
Ways to make work easier
Multiply force, Multiplying distance, by changing direction
Simple machines
increase mechanical advantage
inclined plane
flat slanted surface
wedge
inclined plane that can be moved
screw
an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder
levers
A ridged bar that rotates or pivots around a fixed point
fulcrum
the fixed point around which a lever pivots
First class lever
fulcrum is between the force
Second class lever
load is between the force and the fulcrum
third class lever
force is between the load and the fulcrum
Wheel and Axle
two cylinders stuck together that rotate around a common axis
pulley
a grooved wheel with a rope / chain wrapped around it
The more pulleys on an object
the force needed decreases and the distance traveled too
energy
the ability to do work
Types of energy
mechanical, electrical, chemical, nuclear, thermal
kinetic energy
energy in the form of motion
Kinetic energy
Depends on mass and velocity
Potential Energy
stored energy that depends on position or configuration of an object
Potential energy is
stored energy
gravitational potential energy
energy due to the position of the object
Law of conservation of energy
Energy may change forms, but it cannot be created or destroyed under ordinary conditions
Power
rate at which work is done
Power=
P=W/T (work divided by time)
standard unit of power is
1 watt
1 watt =
1 joule/1 second
746 watts equals
1 horsepower
Kinetic Energy is
energy due to motion
formula for KE
1/2mv^2
the ability to do work or cause change is called
energy
What can be thought of as the transfer of energy?
when an object/organism does work on another object, some of its energy is transferred to the other object
what are the two kinds of general energy?
Kinetic and potential
the kinetic energy of an object depends on both
mass and velocity
Kinetic energy increases as velocity
increases
because velocity is squared in the kinetic energy equation, doubling an object\'s velocity will _______ it\'s kinetic energy
quadruple
what is the potential energy called that is associated with objects that can be stretched or compressed
elastic potential energy
what is potential energy called that depends on height
gravitational potential energy
what is the formula you use to determine the gravatational potential energy of an object
W×H=GPE
the greater the _____ of an object, the greater it\'s gravitational potential energy
height
what is mechanical energy
energy associated with the motion or position of an object
what is thermal energy?
energy of the particles in an object
when thermal energy of an object increases, its
particles move faster
The potential energy stored in chemical bonds that hold chemical compounds together is called
chemical energy
What energy is stored in food?
chemical energy
the energy that moving electric charges carry is called
electrical energy
what kind of energy is stored in the nucleus of an atom
nuclear energy
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