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Abnormal breath sounds occur when air passes through narrowed airways or airways filled fluid or mucus, or when pleural linings are inflamed. Can be cackles, gurgles pleural friction rubs, wheezes.
Adventitious breath sounds
The loss of scalp hair (baldness) or body hair
Alopecia
The junction between the body of the sternum and the manubrium; starting point for locating the ribs anteriorly.
Angle of Louis
the anterior curve of the auricles's upper aspect.
Antihelix
any defects in or loss of the power to express oneself by speech, writing, or signs, or to comprehend spoken or written language due to disease or injury of the cerebral cortex
Aphasia
An uneven curve curvature of the cornea that prevents horizontal and vertical rays from focusing on the retina
Astigmatism
Flap of the ear
Auricle
the process of listening to sounds produced within the body
Auscultation
a test during which the client's fingertip is temporarily pinched to access capillary refill and peripheral circulation
Blanch Test
a blowing or swishing sounds created by turbulence of blood flow
Bruit
tooth cavaties
Caries
opacity of the lens or capsule of the eye
Cataracts
the wax-like substance secreted by glands in the external ear canal
Cerumen
elevation of proximal aspect of the nail and softening of the nail bed
Clubbing
a seashell shaped structure found in the inner ear; essential for sound transmission and hearing




Cochlea



the result of interrupted transmission of sound waves through the outer and middle ear structures
Conduction hearing loss
inflammation of the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva
Conjunctivitis
1) dry, crackling sound like that of crumpled cellophane, produced by air in the subcutaneous tissue or by air moving through fluid in the alveoli of the lungs;2)a cracking grating sound produced by bone rubbing against bone
Crepitations
bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by reduced oxygen in the blood.
Cyanosis
inflammation of the lacrimal sac
Dacryocystitis
the period during which the ventricles relax
Diastole
a thudlike sound produced during percussion by dense tissue of body organs such as the liver, spleen, or heart
Dullness
the lengeth of time that a sound is heard
Duration
the presence of excess interstitial fluid
Edema
a redness associated with a variety of skin rashes
Erythema
the part of the middle ear that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx; stabilizes air pressure between the external atmosphere and the middle ear
Eustaschian tube
a protrusion of the eyeballs with elevation of the upper eyelids, resulting in a startled or staring expression
Exophtalmos
the entrance to the ear canal
External Auditory Meatus
the failure to perceive touch on one side of the body when two symmetric areas of the body are touched simultaneously
Extinction
an extremely dull sound produced, during percussion, by very dense tissue, such as muscle or bone.
Flatness
re, swollen gingiva (gums)
Gingivitis
a disturbance in the circulation of aqueous fluid (in eye)
Glaucoma
inflammation of the tongue
Glossitis
a device used to measure the angle of a joint in degrees
Goniometer
the posterior curve of the auricle's upper aspect
Helix
a protrusion (such as of the interstine through the inguinal wall or canal)
Hernia
a redness, sweelling, and tenderness of the hair follicle and glands that empty at the edge of the eyelids
Hordeolum (sty)
abnormal refraction in which light rays focus behind the retina, farsightedness
Hyperopia
an abnomal booming sound produced during percussion of the lungs
Hyperresonance
the anvil bone of the middle ear
Incus
the visual examination, that is, assessment by using the sense of sight
Inspection
the loudness or softness of a sound, amplitude
Intensity
involuntary trembling when an individual attempts a voluntary movement.
Intention Tremor
a yellowish color of the sclera, mucous membranes, and/or skin
Jaundice
an abnormal anterior movement of the chest related to enlargement of the right ventricle
Lift
earlobe
Lobule
hammer bone of the middle ear
Malleus
the handle-like superior part of the sternum that joins with the clavicles
Manubrium
a bony prominence behind the ear
Mastoid
Constricted pupils
Miosis
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