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auguste comte
coined the ternm of sociology. believed that applying the scientific method to study society, improvements could be made in social life
social facts
patterned ways of behaving thinking and feeling generated at individual level but observable to society.
c. wright mills
used the term sociological imagination to describe how to apply sociological reasoning and see links between personal and social
emergent property
outcome that cannot be explained. has multiple causes (ie traffic jam)
condition or situation where society provides little moral or behvioral guidance to a person
theoretical perspective
basic overall image used to organize and understand society
sociological perspective
sees the link between societal or social context (the general) and behavior of individuals (the particular).
functionalist perspective
views society as a stable and orderly system composed of interdependent and interrelated parts. social structure. each component contributes to the overall functioning. a change in one area affects other areas. functionalists view social change as a strain on the system
social structure
stable, organized patterns of social relationships and interactions that exist within a particular group or society. includes patterns of relationships anf social institutions and organizations (banks, corporations, unions, etc). provides the context within which we interact with others
robert merton
contemporary functionolist theorist who further refined the functionalist perspective. distinguished between manifest and latent functions and noted social dysfunctions
Conflict perspective
Views society as a composition of groups with clashing interests who engage in a struggle over scarce resources, social and material. disproportionate control. conflict leads to change in the context of capitalist production. conflict viewed as positive cuz it can lead to betterment of socirty
carl marx
Elaborated the conflict perspective. Saw society as composed of two main groups: the bourgeoisie and proletariat groups. viewd conflicts between the groups inevitable. proletariat would overthrow bourgeoisIe this responsible for change in society
symbolic interaction perspective
views society as the product of the everyday interactions of peope and groups. believe people create anf shape their social worlds through use of symbols with agreed upon meanings.

george herbert mead explored social influences on development of sense of self.

charles horton cooley concepted the way a persons sense of self is based on the imagjned reaction of others

erving goffman suggested members of socity are like actors playing roles
symbolic interaction perspective
has macro level orientation
socialogical perspective
behavior of individuals is shaped, influenced, and constrained by the larger social context in which it occurs. sees the general in the particular. uses micro level orientation. finds the perceptions and meanings of everday interactions have a greater analytical interest than objective conditions and relations
study of human society and social interaction
large social grouping that occupies the same geographic area and is subject to a common political authority and dominant cultural expextations
socirty transformed from agriculture baded economic activity to manufacture based. began during industrual revolution in britain 1760-1850. people no longer labored land but worked in factories. people moved closer to factories
movement of societys population from rural areas to cities stimulating sociological thinking
Emile Durkheim
studied suicide. found patterns as a result of social factors beyond the persons control. suicide due to weakness in a persons web of social relationships.
attempts to explain or predict how two or more social phenomena are related
manifest functions
intended, expected, or overly recognized consequences of an activity or institution. ie in a wedding legally join two people
Latent functions
Consequences that are largely unintended an unrecognized. ie in a wedding the family reunions
Social dysfunction
The undesirable consequences of an institution or activities for the social system. ie valuing peronal privacy which may mask behaviors like child abuse which Is dysfunctional for society
bourgeoisie group
A.k.a the capitalist class owned the key economic resources and industrial societies
proletariat group
A.k.a the working class composed of people who owns only their ability to labor which they sold to the bourgeoisie in order to earn a living
macro-level perspectives
inude functionalists and conflict perspectives. examine social institutions and large scale social processes rather than small groups that shape society as a whole
micro level perspectives
focus on dynamics and meanings of face to face interactions between people and small groups. focuses on shaping of the self and what people do together.
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