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Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?
The _________ gland empties into the oral cavity at the level of the second upper molar.
Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from _________ stimulation.
A blockage of the ducts from the parotid glands would interfere with _______ digestion in the mouth.
The enzyme that digests strach into disaccharides and trisaccharides is ____.
What are important functions of the liver?
pg. 795; over 200 functions known
The human liver is composed of __ lobes.
The structure that marks the division between the right and left loves of the liver is the _________ ligament.
The _______ ligament is a remnant of the fetal umbilical vein.
In the center of a live lobule there is a ______ vein.
The basic functional unit of the liver is the _________.
liver lobules
________ are arranged within a lobule of the liver into a series of plates converging toward a central vein.
_________ are components of the portal triad found at the edges of a liver lobule.
bile duct, branch of hepatic portal vein, branch of hepatic artery
Your patient has inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the stomach.  This is known clinically as _______.
What are the functions of the Kupffer cells of the liver?
- liver macrophages
- engulf pathogens, cell debris, and damaged blood cells
The _______________ is where pancreatic juice and bile enter the duodenum.
duodenal ampulla
The duodenal ampulla receives scretions from the _____________ duct and the ________ duct.
common bile; pancreatic
The fusion of the hepatic duct and the cystic duct forms the _____________ duct.
common bile
The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of pancreatic ________ cells.
The enzymes produced by the pancreas are:
- pancreatic alpha-amylase
- pancreatic lipase
- nucleases
- proteolytic enzymes
- trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, elastase
The pancreas produces ________-digesting enzymes in the form of proenzymes.
Bile is stored in the _________.
An enzyme that digests proteins into peptides is _________.
Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with the digestion of ________.
The ________ is formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common bile duct.
common bile duct
At the hepatic flexure, the colon becomes the __________ colon.
At the splenic flexure, the colon becomes the _______ colon.
Your patient with liver failure has a firm rounded abdomen due to accumulation of fluid. This is known clinically as ________.
Match the term with its activity.
1. gallbladder 2. esophagus 3. pancreas
A) stores bile
B) secretes digestive enzymes
C) transports material to stomach
1-A; 2-C; 3-B
Bile salts aid in the digestion of fats by __________ large fat droplets.
Leon has gallstones. His doctor puts him on a diet low in fat. Why?
The gallbladder functions to concentrate and store bile produced by the liver. In this capacity, the gallbladder reabsorbs water from the bile. Since bile salts are produced from cholesterol, these salts will be precipitated as cholesterol-like gallstones if too much water is reabsorbed. Whenever bile is released by the gallbladder in response to the presence of fats in the duodenum, the smooth muscle in the wall of the gallbladder must contract. This generates severe pain if the cystic duct or common bile duct are blocked by kidney stones. To minimize or prevent this pain Leonʹs doctor prescribes a low-fat : less fat in the diet, less contraction of the gallbladder, and less pain.
Imagine eating a soda cracker, which is basically starch, fat, protein, and salt. How would each of these components be digested? Where within the digestive system would they be digested? Are any accessory organs involved?
Digestion begins in the oral cavity. Food triggers saliva from the parotids, rich in amylase, and from the submandibulars, rich in mucus. The tongue and teeth cooperate to mix all together and form a bolus. Digestion of fats and starch begins due to lingual lipase and salivary amylase. Swallowing reflexes send it to the stomach. Acid and pepsin greet the bolus. Peptides form from the wheat proteins due to action of pepsin. It then travels into the small intestine, where pancreatic lipase and amylase complete fat and starch digestion. Pancreatic proteinases and peptidases reduce peptides to amino acids. These are absorbed by cotransport. Maltose from starch is split into glucose molecules, which are absorbed by cotransport. The salt in the cracker is absorbed during cotransport. Fatty acids diffuse into the epithelial cells because of their lipid character.
What local reflexes control the GI tract?
The GI tract has extensive sensory and motor neuron plexuses that communicate along the entire length of the digestive tube. These systems enable simple reflex behavior. Vomiting is a familiar example. Toxins are detected by sensory neurons in the GI tract. They trigger a reflex reverse peristalsis, emptying the stomach and esophagus of the offensive material. The gastroileal reflex is triggered by stomach distension, causing food to move from the ileum into the colon. Similarly, stomach stretch can trigger reflex mass movements that send chyme into the rectum, promoting a sense of urgency. Another is the gastroenteric reflex, also initiated by stretch receptors in the stomach, that stimulates motility and secretion along the entire small intestine. Finally, the enterogastric reflex causes the emptying and other movements of the stomach to pause for a few moments when gastric contents contact the duodenal mucosa. This is a good example of local autonomic regulation.
Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by connective tissue. Which of the following signs would you expect to observe in Tony?
- increased clotting time 
- jaundice
- portal hypertension and ascites
Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe in Tom?
Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity. As a result you would expect Mary to be at risk for ________.
pernicious anemia
If the pancreatic duct was obstructed, you would expect to see elevated blood levels of __________.
An obstruction of the common bile duct often results in:
-undigested fat in the feces.

The stomach is able to distend a great deal as it receives food because of all of the following, EXCEPT that 
A) there is a great deal of loose tissue in the form of rugae.
B) the smooth muscle of the stomach is very elastic.
C) the hormone gastrin relaxes stomach smooth muscle.
D) sympathetic stimulation decreases the tonus of the gastric smooth muscle.
E) the gastric smooth muscle is very extensible
the hormone gastrin relaxes stomach smooth muscle.
All of the following are true of the process known as cotransport, EXCEPT that 
A) only neutral compounds such as sugars are transported.
B) more than one molecule or ion is moved through the cell membrane at one time. 
C) ATP is not required by the transport protein.
D) saturation phenomenon can be observed.
E) molecules can be moved against a concentration gradient
only neutral compounds such as sugars are transported.
During deglutition, which of the following phases is NOT present? 
A) voluntary
B) pharyngeal 
C) laryngeal 
D) esophageal
E) None of the above. All are phases in deglutition
If the lingual frenulum is too restrictive, an individual
A) has a condition called ankyloglossia.
B) has difficulty eating. 
C) cannot speak normally. 
D) all of the above
E) A and C only
all of the above
All of the following contain mucous cells in the epithelium, EXCEPT the 
A) stomach.
B) transverse colon. 
C) esophagus.
D) small intestine.
E) large intestine
The digestive tract is also referred to as the:
-alimentary canal.
-GI tract
Products of fat digestion are transported initially by _________.
lymphatic vessels
The absorption of some sugars in the small intestine involves _______.
Nutrients are absorbed by all of the following, EXCEPT 
A) active transport.
B) diffusion.
C) facilitated diffusion. 
D) cotransport.
E) osmosis.
All of the following are true of the intestinal phase of gastric digestion, EXCEPT that it 
A) precedes the gastric phase.
B) functions to control the rate of gastric emptying.
C) involves both neural and endocrine reflexes.
D) helps ensure that the functions of the small intestine proceed with relative efficiency.
E) begins when chyme enters the small intestine
precedes the gastric phase
Each of the following is a function of the liver, EXCEPT 
A) synthesis and secretion of bile.
B) antibody production.
C) synthesis of plasma proteins. 
D) inactivation of toxins.
E) storage of glycogen and iron reserves
antibody production
A viral infection that often involes the parotid glands, which swell noticeably, is the __________.
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