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The chamber within a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves is the __________.
pulp cavity
The root of a tooth is covered by ____________.
cementum
The crown of the tooth is covered by __________.
enamal
________ are blade-shaped teeth that function in cutting or clipping.
incisors
__________ are pointed teeth that are adapted for tearing and slashing.
cuspids
__________ are teeth with flattened crowns and prominent ridges that are adapted for crushing and grinding.
bicuspids
_______ are also known as caninies.
cuspids
Functions of the teeth include:
- chew food
- break down food
The first teeth to appear are the _______ teeth.
primary or primary dentition
There are normally a total of ___ primary teeth.
20
The secondary dentition usually comprises ___ teeth.
32
The espohagus has several variations from the standard plan of the gut tube.  These include epithelium of mucosa is stratitied __________, and _____________ may be striated muscle.
squamous; muscularis externa
During deglutition, the soft palate ______, the laryne _____, the epiglottis ________, and the lower esophageal sphincter __________.
evalates; elevates; closes; opens
What are the phases of deglutition?
1. Bucca phase
2. pharngeal phase
3. esophagneal
The ________ phase begins with compression of the bolus against the hard palate; retraction of the tongue then forces the bolus into the oropharynx and assists in the elevation of the soft palate, thereby sealing off the nasopharynx; is strictly voluntary.
bucca
The _________ phase begins when tactile receptors on the palatal arches and uvula are stimulated; In response, motor commands from the swallowing center in the medulla oblongata then direct a coordinated pattern of muscle contraction in the pharyngeal muscles, while the palatal muscles elevate the uvula and soft palate to block the entrance of the nasophaynx.
pharyngeal
The _________ phase of swallowing begins as the contracitons of pharyngeal muscles forces the bolus through the entrance to the espohagus; once in the espohagus, the bolus is pushed townard the stomachby peristaltic waves.
esphageal
Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in _______.
swallowing (deglutition)
The ________________ supports most of the small intestine and provides stability and limited movement.
mesentery proper
The ___________ provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?
lessor omentum
The ___________ contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen.
greater omentum
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity secretes ________ fluid, which decrease friction and lubricates the caviry.  It also prevents irritation.
peritoneal
Approximately __ liters of fluid are secreted and reabsorbed into the peritoneal cavity each day.
7
The double-layer sheets of serous membrane that support the viscera are called ________.
mesenteries
The regions of the stomach are:
- fundus
- cardia
- body
- pylorus
The ________ of the stomach is the portion of the stomach that is superior to the junction btween the stomach and the esphagus; contacts the inferior, posterior suface of the diaphragm.
fundus
The ________ of the stomach is the superior, medial portion of the stomach within 3 cm. of the junction between the stomach and the esophagus; contains abundant mucus glands whose secretions coat the connection with the espohagus and help protect that tube from the acid and enzymes of the stomach.
cardia
The ______ of the stomach is the area of stomach between the fundus and the curve of the J; it is the largest region of the stomach; functions in mixing bowl for ingested food and secretions produced in the stomach.
body
The ______ of the stomach forms the sharp curve of the J; as mixing movements accur during digestion, it frequently changes shape.
pylorus
The _______ of the stomach connects to the esophagus.
cardia
The ___________ is a fatty sheet that hangsl ike an apron over the abdominal viscera.
greater omentum
The portion of the stomach that is superior to the junction between the stomach and the espohagus is the _____________.
fundus
The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for food and secretions is the _________.
body
The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is the ________.
pylorus
A feature of the digestive epithelium that assists expansion of the stomach is the presence of ________.
rugae
The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called ________.
rugae
The ________ mechanically digests ingested food.
stomach
After food and gastic juices combine, the gastric contents are referred to as _________.
chyme
Perietal cells secrete _________.
intrinsic factor
Chief cells secrete _________.
pepsinogen
Diagram to learn on page 779
Gastric pits are openings into ____________.
gastric glands
The enzyme pepsin digests _________.
proteins
An enzyme secreted by the gastric mucosa of a newborn that assists in the digestion of milk proteins is __________.
rennin
The lining of the stomach has simple _______ epithelium, is covered by thick alkaline _________, contains gastric pits, and is constantly being replaced.
columnar; mucus layer
Which of the following would be greater?

- the pH of the blood in gastric veins during digestion of a large meal
- the pH of the blood in gastric veins following a 24 hr. fast
- the pH of the blood in the gastric veins could be greater after a meal or after a fast; there is not enough info. to predict
- the pH in the gastric veins is constant because of buffering.
the pH of the blood in gastric veins during digestion of a large meal
A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in:
a higher pH during gastric digestion
Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity.  As a result, you would expect Mary to be at risk for vitimin __ deficiency.
B12

(pernicious anemia)
________ carry absorbed fats to lymphatic system.
lacteals
Plicae and intestine villi increase the surface area of the mucosa of the ______________.
small intestine
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