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a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
Acid
a condition that occurs with increases in blood carbonic acid or with decreases in blood bicarbonate;blood pH blow 7.35
Acidosis
movement of substances across cell membranes against the concentration gradient.
Active Transport
a condition that occurs with increases in blood bicarbonate or decreases in blood cargonic acid; blood pH above 7.45
Alkalosis
ions that carry a negative charge; including chlorine(CL-), bicarbonate(HCO3-), phosphate(HPO4/2-), and sulfate (SO4-)
Anions
specimen of of arterial blood that assesses oxygenation, ventilation, and acid-base status
Arterial blood gases (ABG's)
(alkalis) have low hydrogen ion concentration and can accept hydrogen ions in solution
Bases
prevemt excessive changes in pH by removing or releasing hydrogen ions.
Buffers
Ions that carry a positive charge; includes sodium(Na+), potassium(K+), calcium(Ca2+), and magnesium(Mg2+)
Cations
a substance such as large protein molecules that do not readily dissolve into true solutions
Colloids
a pulling force exerted by colloids that help maintain the water content of blood
Colloid osmotic pressure
process in which healthy regulartory systems will attempt to correct acid-base imbalances
Compensation
salts that dissolve readily into true solution
Crystalloids
insufficient fluid in the body
Dehydration
the mixing of molecules or ions of two or more substances as a reslt of random motion
Diffusion
chemical substancs that develop an electric charge and are able to conduct an electric current when placed in water; ions
Electrolytes
Fluid found outside the body cells
Extracellular fluid (ECF)
process whereby ffluid and solutes move together across a membrane from one compartment to to another
Filtration
the pressure in a compartment that results in the movement of fluid and substances dissolved in fluid out of the compartment
Filtration pressure
(Hypovolemia) loss of both water and electrolytes in similar proportions from the extracellular fluid
Fluid Volume Deficit (FVD)
(Hypervolemia) retention of both water and sodium in similar proportions to normal extracellular fluid.
Fluid Volume Excess (FVE)
the proportion of red blood cells (erythrocytes) to the total blood volume
Hematocrit
the tendancy of the body to maintain a state of balance or equilibrium while continually changing; a mechanism in which deviations from normal are sensed or counteracted
Homeostasis
the pressure a liquid exerts on the sides of the container that holds it; also called filtration force
Hydrostatic pressure
an excess of calcium in the blood plasma
Hypercalcemia
an excess of chloride in the blood plasma
Hyperchloremia
an excess of potassium in the blood plasma
Hyperkalemia
an excess of magnesium in the blood plasma
Hypermagnesemia
an excess of sodium in the blood plasma
Hypernatremia
solutions that have a higher osmolality than body fluids
Hypertonic
increased blood volume
Hypervolemia
deficiency of calcium in the blood plasma
Hypocalcemia
deficiency of chloride in the blood plasma
Hypochloremia
deficiency of potassium in the blood plasma
Hypokalemia
deficiency of magnesemia in the blood plasma
Hypomagnesemia
deficiency of sodium in the blood plasma
Hyponatremia
deficiency of phosphate in the blood plasma
Hypophosphatemia
an excess of phosphate in the blood plasma
Hyperphosphatemia
solutions that have lower osmolality than body fluids
Hypotonic
an abnormal reduction in blood volume
Hypovolemia
fluid loss that is not perceptible to the individual
Insensible fluid loss
fluid that surrounds the cells. includes lymph
Interstitial fluid
fluid found within the body cells, also called cellular fluid
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
plasma
Intravascular fluid
atoms or group of atoms that carry a positive or negative electric charge ; electrolytes
Ions
solutions that have the same osmolality as body fluids
Isotonic
a condition characterized by a deficiency of bicarbonate ions in the body in relation to the amount of carbonic acid in the body; pH falls to less than 7.35
Metabolic acidosis
a condition characterized by a excess of bicarbonate ions in the body in relation to the amount of carbonic acid in the body; pH rises to greater than 7.45
Metabolic Alkalosis
one-thousandth of an equivilant, which is the chemical combining power of a substance
Milliequivalent
Essential fluid losses required to maintain body functioning
Obligatory losses
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