Cloned from: Pathophysiology



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A carrier-mediated process that can move substances against a concentration  gradient.
Active Transport
Of or pertaining to the presents of air or O2.
Aerobic
The total resistance against whitch blood must be pumped; also known as peripheral vascular resistance.
Afterload
A condition marked by a high concentration of hydrogen ions (i.e., a pH below 7.35).
Acidosis
A condition marked by a low concentration of hydrogen ions (i.e., a pH above 7.45).
Alkalosis
Substances that can produce hypersensitivity reaction in the body.
Allergens
Of or pertaining to the absents of O2.
Anaerobic
An ion with a negative charge.
Anion
Substances (usually protiens) that cause the formation of an antibody and that react specifically with that antibody.
Antigens
Decrease in the size (shrinking) of a cell, whitch adversally effects function.
Atrophy
The lymphocytes resposible for antibody mediated immunity.
B Lymphosytes
The volume of blood pumped each minute by the ventricle.
Cardiac Output
An ion with a postive charge
Cation
A groupe of prtiens that coat bacteria; the protiens that wither help kill the bacteria directly, or they assist neutrophils (in th blood) and macrophages (in the tissue) to engulf and destroy the bacteria.
Complemenet System
The process by whitch solid, particulate matter in a fluid moves from a higher concentration to an area of lowre concentration, resulting in an even distribution of particles in the fluid.
Diffusion
Abnormal cell growth
Dysplasia
Accumulation of fluid in the interstisial spaces.
Edema
The water found outside the cells, include that of the vascular and interstitial compartments.
Extracellular Fluid
A carrier mediated process that moves substances into or out of cells from high to low concentrations.
Facilitated Diffusion
An excessive increase in the number of cells.
Hyperplasia
An altered immunological response to an antigen that results in a pathological immune response upon reexposure.
Hypersensitivity Reaction
An increase in the sixe of a cell.
Hypertrophy
A lower then normal O2 content of the blood as measured in an arterial sample.
Hypoxemia
A tissue reaction to injury or to an antigen; it may include pain, itching, redness, heat, and loss of function.
Inflammatory Response
Fluid that occupies the space outside the blood vessles and/or outside the cells of an organ or tissue.
Interstitial Fluid
The fluid found in all body cells.
Intercellular Fluid
A state of insufficient perfusion of oxygenated blood to a body or organ part.
Ischemia
Mechanisms that use carrier molecules to move large, water-soluble molecules or electricly charged molecules accross cell membranes.
Mediated Transport Mechanism
A change from one cell type to another that is better able to tolerate adverse conditions; a conversion into a form that is not normal for that cell.
Metaplasia
Death of a cell or a group of cells as the result of injury or disease.
Necrosis
New and abnormal development in cells, whitch may be benine or malignant.
Neoplasia
The osmotic preasure of a solution
Osmolality
The diffusion of slovent (water) through a membrane from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated solution.
Osmosis
The pressure exerted by a single gas.
Partial Pressure
The amount of blood returning to the ventricle.
Preload
A condition severly inadequate blood flow to the bodys peripheral tissues that is associated with life threatening cellular dysfunction; also known as hypoperfusion.
Shock
The volume of blood ejected by the ventricle in a single heart beat.
Stroke Volume
The lymphocytes responsible for cell mediated immunity.
T Lymphocytes
The relative strength of a pathogen.
Virulence
ICF accounts for ___% of total body weight?
40%
ECF accounts for __% of total body weight?
20%
Sodium balance is regulated by_____.
Aldosterone
Causes:
Severe or long term vomiting, Systemic Infection
Intestinal Obstruction
SS:
Dry skin and mucous
Tounge furrows
Oliguria
Anuria
Depressed or sunken fontanells


Isotonic Dehydration
Causes:
Excessive use of diuretics
Intake of sodium with the absents of water
Watery diarreha
Water loss with little loss of sodium
SS:
Flushed, doughy skin
Intense thirst
Oliguria or Anuria
Increased body temp
Altered Mental Status
Hypernatremic Dehydration
Causes:
Diuretics
Excessive perspiration
Renal disorder
Incrteased water intake
SS:
Muscle cramping
Seizures
Rapid pulse
Diaphoresis
Cyanosis
Hyponatremic Dehydration
SS:
Shortness of breath
Edema
Polyuria
Moist crackles
Overhydration
The major positivly charged ion in the ICF.
Potassium (K)

SS:
Malaise
Skeletl Muscle Weakness
Cardiac Dysrhythmias
Decreased reflexs
Weak pulse
Faint heart sounds
Low BP

Hypokalemia

Treatment:
IV or Oral K
SS:
Cardiac disturbances
Irratbility
Abdomial Distention
Weakness (early sign) paralysis (late)
Hyperkalemia

Treatment:
IV Calcium,glucose, insulin, Sodium bi-carb, & Albuterol

Bivalent cation that is essentual neuromuscular transmission, cell membrane permeability, horrmone secretion, bones, and muscle contraction.
Calcium
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