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The four keys to the psychoanalytic approach
1.  Psychic Determinism
2.  Internal Structure
3.  Mental Energy
4.  Psychic Conflict
Everything that happens in a person''s mind has a specific cause if you look hard enough - No accidents, No Meracles, No Free Will

Psychic Determinism
§contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy
§strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives
§operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
ID
The rational Part

§the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality
§mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality
operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
Ego
The moral part
§
the part of personality that presents internalized ideals
§provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
Superego
The mind has a finite amount of psychic energy available to use

the point of psychoaalysis is to free up the psychic energy for daily life
Mental Energy
Life or sexual drive
Creation, protection, enjoyment of life, creativity, productivity, Growth
Labido
Agression, Destructive activities, Entropy
Thantos "Death Drive"
ID vs Ego Vs Superego

(no other theory has this)
Psychic conflict
A reservoir of mostly unacceptable feelings, thoughts, wishes and memories
Unconscious
(0-18 months) sucking, biting, chewing


§Physical focus – mouth, lips, and tongue
§Psychological theme – dependency
§Adult type – those who refuse to accept help OR those who are extremely passive who do nothing for themselves.

Oral Stage
(18-36 months) §Physical focus – anus and eliminative organs §Psychological theme – self-control Adult type – over-organized “anal-retentive” type who is obsessive, orderly, and controlling OR someone with no self-control who is chaotic and disorganized
Anal Stage
3-6 Years

§Physical focus – penis
§Psychological theme – what it means to be a boy or a girl
§Identification
§the process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos
§Adult type – development of morality. Extreme types include a very promiscuous person OR completely asexual



Phallic Stage
Dormant sexual feelings (6 to puberty)
Latency

(Puberty on)
§
Physical focus – the genitals
§Psychological theme – creation and enhancement of life
§Adult type – No fixations on previous stages and balance in love and work.
Genital Stage
§the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Defense Mechanisms
§the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
§Repression

defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
§Regression
§
§defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites §people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
§Reaction Formation
§defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
§Projection

§
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions
Rationalization
§defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person §as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
§Displacement
§§a form of Displacement in which sexual urges are re-channeled into productive, non-sexual activities.
Sublimation
A talk therapy technique allowing the patient to talk about whatever comes to mind. The psychoanalyst then analyzes the transitions.
§Free Association
§§a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics
Projective Test
§§the most widely used projective test
§a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach
§seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Rorschach Inkblot Test
x of y cards