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Duration: Brief Psychotic D/O vs Schizophreniform D/O vs Schizophrenia
Brief Psychotic D/O: < 1 mo.
Schizophreniform D/O: 1-not more than 6 mo.
Schizophrenia: 6+ mo.
Duration: Acute Stress D/O vs PTSD
Acute Stress D/O: 2 days to 4 weeks; within 4 weeks of event
PTSD: duration 1+ mo.
Paranoid Personality Disorder
~element of others conspiring against her
~use projection and denial: deny own feelings; project onto others
Somatization Disorder
~pattern of recurring, multiple, clinically significant somatic complaints
~complaint is considered to be clinically significant if it results in medical treatment or causes significant impairment
~must be 4 body parts, sexual sx, GI sx, neurological sx
Normative Grief Reaction
can include intense fear, paranoia, hallucinations
Korsakoff's Syndrome and Wernicke's encephalopathy
~associated w/chronic use of ETOH
~caused by vit B1 deficiency resulting from major ETOH use
~tx: thiamine
Tourette's Disorder
multiple motor and one or more vocal tics
Delirium
~caused by substance, toxin, and/or medical condition; usually a med ER
~disturbance in the level of consciousness and orientation with concomitant changes in cognition
~onset over a brief period of time and often clears when the condition relents
~sx often better QAM and worse QHS
Dementia
~disturbance that consists of impairment in a number of cognitive abilities, including memory
~becomes progressively worse, ex: Alzheimer's
~usually caused by general med condition, ex: multiple strokes
Amnestic Disorder
impairment in memory solely
Stages of Schizophrenia
1. prodromal phase
2. active phase
3. residual phase
Types of Delusions
1. erotomanic: someone in love with pt
2. grandiose
3. jealous: partner is unfaithful
4. persecutory
5. somatic: noxious odor, something under skin, body parts of ugly or not functioning
6. mixed: no theme predominates
7. unspecified
Schizoid PD v Schizotypal PD
~schizoid: more negative sx; detachment from emotions, activities, people
~schizotypal: more traditional psychotic sx; odd thoughts, beliefs, affect, bx; few close friends/family
Histrionic PD
~lots of attention/relationship seeking bx
~dramatic bx, emotions, appearance
~perceives relationships to be closer than they are
Dependent Personality Disorder
~constant need to have others around--they are unable to care for themselves or complete tasks alone
~will go to extreme lengths to maintain/gain a relationship
Obsessive Compulsive PD
~TOTAL RIGIDITY: lists, details, rules, morality, ethics, values, work, relationships with others
~perfectionism, work, and productivity make everything else near impossible
Stages of HIV
1. acute infection
2. asymptomatic
3. symptomatic or chronic
4. full-blown AIDS

dx: long period of total adjustment to d/o
Agnosia
inability or inpairment in ability to attach meaning to familiar objects based on the senses
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
recessive gene d/o; lacks an enzyme to metabolize phenylalanine; can cause MR
Pseudocyesis
physiological sx of pregnancy in the absence of pregnancy
WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised)
yields three scores: verbal, performance, total (IQ)
WISC-R (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised)
yields three scores: verbal, performance, total (IQ)
Possible effects of LDs
can lead to bx problems as self-esteem decreases and pt becomes (or believes she is) an object of derision in class
Typical agent of onset of Panic D/O
often between 17 and 35
Def. of Mental D/O
1. distress
2. impairment in fx
3. significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, important loss of freedom
Issues with Society and Mental D/Os
neither deviant bx nor conflicts that are primarily btwn the pt and society are mental d/os unless the deviance or conflict is a sx of a dysfx in the person
DSM and Etiology
atheoretical except with regard to d?os for which it is well established and therefore included in the name of the d/o.
DSM Dx Criteria
1. primary/major sx (must be present)
2. secondary sx (some must be present; "AEB 2+ of the following sx")
3. temporal pattern or duration
Dx Hierachies
1. if SA or med condition can account for sx, it preempts all other dx ALWAYS RULE OUT MEDICAL CAUSES FOR SX
2. more pervasive d/os (schizophrenia) preempt less pervasive (dysthymia)
Dx'ing Schizophrenia
~psychotic sx must be present
~bizarre bx, impaired comm, impaired social interaction, restricted repertoire of activities and interests, but no psychotic sx, in a child consider Autism
Delusional D/O vs Paranoid Schizophrenia
Delusional D/O has fewer bizarre delusions, prominent AH; also produces less impairment
Neurovegetative Sx
1. sleep disturbance
2. anhedonia
3. guilt
4. energy definit
5. concentration deficit
6. appetite disturbance
7. psychomotor retardation or agitation
8. suicidality
Factitious D/O vs Malingering
1. malingering: fake sx to reach goal or get reward
2. factitious d/o: fake sx due to "need to adopt the sick role."
Thyroid Disturbance and Mood
~hyperthyroidism can mimic mania
~hypothyroidism can mimic depression
Clusters of PDs
Cluster A: Odd and Eccentric (Paranoid, Schizotypal, Schizoid)
Cluster B: Dramatic, emotional, and erratic (Borderline, Antisocial, Histrionic, Narcissistic)
Cluster C: Anxious and Fearful (Avoidant, Dependent, OCPD)
Endogenous Depression
~chemical imbalance
~usually more severe; more neurovegetative sx
Exogenous Depression
~sx caused by external events or psychosocial stressors
~usually less severe
MMPI
~predominant personality traits or bx
~dx PDs
Dx'ing PDs
Must affect 2+ areas:
1. cognition (perceiving and interpreting self, others, events)
2.affectivity (range, intensity, lability, appropriateness of emo response)
3. interpersonal fx'ing
4. impulse control
Conduct D/O vs ODD
ODD children do not have sx of conduct d/o, such as violating the rights of others
Conduct D/O
~may be "socialized" (empathy towards those w/connects to pt but aggressive to others) or "unsocialized"
~most effective tx involves pt, family, schoo, community; provide parenting skills and bx mod at home and school
Separation Anxiety (includes School Phobia)
~usually a situational problem but can become a serious psych ER if not treated quickly
~longer children are allowed to stay out of school, the worse it gets
Avoidant Bx
~timidly avoid the establishment of new r'ships
~may enjoy r'ships at home or w/familiar persons
~may seek new r'ships with non-threatening conditions exist
Overanxious D/O of Childhood
~not tied to specific problems or stresses
~may result in med sx
Specific Phobia Age of Onset
late teens or early adulthood
Depression Sx in Children and Adolecents
~bx, somatic dx of depression are most prominent in children and adolescence
~80% of teen suicides are linked to depression
Encopresis
~can be intentional or involuntary
~monthly x 3 mo; child 4+y.o.
Stanford-Binet Psychological Test
intelligence test for children
MMPI Psychological Test
identifies predominant personality traits or behavior
ADHD
must occur in at least two different settings or situations
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