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Code of Ethics
~always have direct access
~consult before conferring with others
Work Problems
~when you have "direct knowledge"
~always try to resolve by going to the person involved to find out the nature of the problem
~if colleague unwilling, follow procedure for notifying appropriate person
Ethics v Values
values: a belief system
ethics: a standard of conduct based on a belief system
NASW Core Values
1. service
2. social justice
3. dignity and worth of the person
4. importance of human relationships
5. integrity
Bartering
"generally speaking, SWs should not enter into bartering arrangements with clients"
Clients who lack decision making capacity
SWs who are providing services to pts who do not have the capacity to make informed decisions have a responsibility to protect the interests and rights of these clients
Termination of services
SWs have a responsibility to term services when they are no longer needed, desired by pt. When necessary to term prior to that time, SW should assist client in locating another provider of services
Interdisciplinary collaboration
~use SW orientation to assist team in furthering well-being of pt (making sure needs are met)
~if team makes decision counter to pt well being, SW should strive to resolve problem through appropriate means
~maintain a good r'ship w/other providers to help pt
Referral for Services
SWs may not receive or give payment for a referral
Supervisors, consultors
~have skills, competence to do so
~stay up to date
~"clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries"
~avoid dual r'ships that could result in harm or exploitation
~evaluate in a fair, respectful manner
Client records
~accurate, private, reflect services provided (only to pt), contain sufficient info, maintained in timely manner
~keep for time stated by state law/relevant contracts
Client transfer
~don't agree to provide services until pt's needs, r'ship with current provider are considered
~discuss w/new pts whether old provider is more appropriate
SWs in Administrative Positions
~advocate within/out agencies for resources to meet pt needs
~make sure adequate resources given to supervision
~working environment in harmony with NASW Ethics
Continuing Ed, Staff Development
~arrange for continuing ed
~focus: current knowledge, emerging issues
Commitment to Employers
~keep committments
~educate employer re: ethics, implications for practice
~work to improve policies, procedures, services
~prevent, eliminate discrimination
~only work in orgs with fair personnel practices
~responsibly manage resources
Supervision: Educational Functions
1. trains staff re: resources
2. trains staff re: policy
3. assists staff in developing needed work skills
4. assists staff in gaining greater self-awareness
Supervision: Administrative Functions
1. human resources
2. strategic planning
3. budgeting
4. organizational operations
5. evaluates practice
Supervisor is responsible to
~agency
~supervisee
~client

"direct, coordinate, enhance, eval the performance of the supervisee for whose work he is accountable"
Effective supervision is
~case-oriented
~structured (supervisee is informed of what kind of structure)
~regular
~consistent in style, approach
~evaluated: should ask supervisees for feedback
6 Stages of Consultation
(not always in same order or direction)
1. entry: gain acceptance of org
2. goal ID stage: problem data, circumstances, efforts to solve
3. goal definition stage: consult helps org w/concrete definition
4. intervention stage
5. assessment stage: impact of intervention
6. concluding the r'ship stage: determine beforehand when r'ship should end
Reasons why orgs may result consultation (and suggests for consults)
1. desire to maintain status quo (make minimum necessary changes)
2. objection to outsider's involvement in org (do your homework, be accessible)
3. tendency to favor established norms (get formal evidence that leaders are in favor of consult)
4. movement to protect one's role in org (include personnel in consult process)
SW Record Keeping
1. document services provided
2. ensure continuity in services
3. communicate w/other service providers
4. facilitate supervision, peer review, evaluation efforts
Problem (or Personal)-Oriented Record (POR): Purposes
~pros: permits accountability, interdisciplinary comm; useful in peer review
~cons: costly, time consuming, needs serious adaptation for SW
Problem (or Personal)-Oriented Record: 4 Parts
1. database: info from intake
2. problem list: all problems IDed from data collected; index to pt record; evaluate service provision, work toward tx goals
3. initial plans: plans for listed problems, with progress notes for each
4. progress notes, including discharge summary
Interdisciplinary Collaboration (TEST TIP)
~any med d/o: always refer to MD
~might be asked what to do first from list of poss actions
2 Kinds of Budgets
1. line-item (most common): budget broken down into various categories of expenditure
2. zero-based (based on 0 monies at start of year; org must justify each $ requested; designed to eliminate unnecessary budget allocations)
Management by Objectives
model of management in which the group reaches a consensus regarding what the objectives will be, what resources will be used, and how criteria will be met
Persuading funding sources to back large scale community project
~requires broad community institutional support if it is to succeed
~tell funding sources about support from other major comm orgs and local gov't
Below the line costs
~always reflect the costs of program operations without staff and fringe benefits
~above the line: other personnnel related costs
~below the line: rent, office supplies, telephone, PR, transportation, training
Supervisor Responsibility
supervisors are ultimately responsible for the actions of their supervisees
Primary objective of management
enhancement of service resources and service effectiveness
Purpose of social welfare administration
¤goal attainment, org maintenance
¤political process concerned w/when, why, how, to whom services are allocated
Scientific Management Theory
people work for money
Human Relations Theory
people get rewards from work itself
Structural Functional Theories
¤focus on application of goals, power, centralization
¤utilize informal relations, interdependence, adaptation, participation
¤bureaucratization is ever changing process
Systems Theories
¤synthesizes the structuralist and human relations approach
¤bureaucracies viewed as social systems w/subsystems whose fx are: managment, adaptation, maintenance
Administrative Fx: Maintenance Subset
¤efficiency
¤problem-solving
¤maintenance of resources
¤standardization of procedures
¤controlling agency fx
Administrative Fx: Service Subset
¤quality of service
¤goal setting
¤staff development
¤evaluation: program/staff
¤public relations
Def: Social Welfare Policy
includes almost all decisions of a gov't that affect the quality of life and impact the welfare of its citizens
Process of Policy Planning Phases
1. problem
2. proposal
3. decision
4. planning
5. programming
6. evaluation
Problems Associated with Policy Implementation
¤unclear directives, communication
¤neg attitudes of service personnel
¤lack of resources to carry out policy
¤previously established procedures or structures
Program Planning Budget System
each budget item must be an aspect of a prog that carries stated objectives so that the $ can be justified in terms of how activities contribute to objectives
Criteria for Program Evaluation
1. effort
2. impact
3. effectiveness
4. efficiency
5. quality
Systems Analysis
studies impact of other orgs and environment related to prog changes
Analytic Model
uses costs as independent variables to evaluate prog effectiveness
Three Functions of Supervision
1. administrative
2. educational
3. supportive
Criteria for Performance Appraisal
based on previously agreed to, standardized prof criteria sot hat they are not perceived as based on SW's personality factors, value choice, or political mechanisms
Interorganizational Relations
¤enhance service opportunities
¤enhance service delivery
¤produce greater specificity re: expectations, resource exchanges
¤formal or contractural interactions increase predictability, stability
Public Relations: 3 Focuses
1. education
2. advocacy
3. outreach
Consultants
¤authority comes from knowledge, skills
¤no authority over staff
¤must be sanctioned by agency
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