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Exploratory (Formulative) Research
research designed to provide preliminary data on issues; provides a basis for later, more in-depth research
Explanatory (Causal Comparative) Research
involves searching through data in an attempt to ID possible causal factors of observed consequences
Multiple Baselines (Single Subject Design)
~collects baseline data on 3+ bx
1. intervene on bx 1
2. intervene on bx 2 after bx 1 has changed
3. intervene on bx 3 after bx 1, 2 have changed
Action Research
research designed to find solutions or to develop new approaches to solving probs typically in a practice setting
Kurtosis
when 2 distributions are symmetric, unimodal, and bell-shaped, but differ in shape
Variance
standard deviation squared
Inferential Stats
stats that allow the researcher to make inferences about a population from data obtained from a sample of that population
Chi Square
statistical test used to measure the degere of agreement btwn categorical data and a probability model that defines expected frequencies of outcome in each possible category
Hawthorne Effect
when subjects behave differently than they would normally do because they are aware they are being observed for research purposes
Lack of Sample Comparability
when the experimental and control groups were not not comparable from the beginning
Intervening and Extraneous Variables
factors other than the independent variable that may exert influence on the outcome
probability sample
same as random sampling
Stratified Sampling
form of probability sampling used to decrease sampling error or to ensure that there are sufficient cases representing different values of a variable to allow for comparisons (e.g., so many Asians, Af-Americans, Caucasians in the sample)
Cluster Sampling
invovles the identification of groups or clusters of cases and the random selection of a predetermined number of clusters for inclusion in the research sample
Usability
refers to practical considerations of using an instrument: availability, ease, time required to use, expense, score, social desirability issues
Grounded Theory
qualitative research method that involves skillful interviewing and a special form of content analysis; involves a recurring process of developing, checking, and reshaping theoretical formulations
Unstructured Systematic Observation
characterized by the absence of formal measurement instruments; the researcher may function as a passive or participant observer; observations are made in the study group's natural environment, as opposed to in a lab
Within Series Designs
research designs that are ideographic (focus on individuals); study participants are their own control
Self Anchored Rating Scales
scales created by the pt and SW to measure progress toward tx goals
Effectiveness Research
outcome research conducted in a natural setting (ex: testing an intervention in a MH org w/pts dx w/MDD)
Efficacy Research
outcome research conducted in an artificial setting (ex: testing an intervention in a lab)
Ethics in AB Research Designs
in some cases it would be unethical to withdraw tx if parents were at risk for harm; in a crisis you would not delay tx in order to obtain baseline data
External Validity
Can the results be generalized to other groups, settings, or times, or from one measure to another?
Internal Validity
Did the experiemental tx make a difference in this specific instance?
Content Validity
Is the context of this measure representative of the content of the property being measured? (How well does the Beck Depression Inventory measure depression?)
Construct Validity
To what extent do certain explanatory concepts or qualities account for performance on the test?
Predictive Valdity
To what degree does variation in test scores predict variation on some other measure?
Face Validity
Does the test focus directly on the bx of the kind in which we are interested?
Developmental Research
¤may be the best SW research
¤methods directed explicitly toward analysis, development, evaluation over the means by which SW objectives are achieved
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