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I. Olfactory
Sensory

Function:
  • Smell
Assessment Method:
  • Have client close eyes and identify different aromas
II. Optic Nerve
Sensory

Vision and Visual Fields
  • Snellen Chart
  • Check visual fields by confrontation
  • conduct opthalmoscope exam
III. Oculomotor
Motor

Function:
  • Extraocular eye movement (EOM)
  • Controls movement of ciliary muscles of lens
Assessment Method
  • Six ocular movement and pupil reaction
IV. Trochlear
Motor

Function:
  • Extraocular eye movement (EOM)
  • Specifically moves eyeball downward and laterally
Assessment method
  • Six ocular movements
V. Trigeminal
Both

Function:
  • Sensation of cornea, skin of face, nasal mucosa
  • motor: muscles of mastication
Assessment method:
  • test light touch, face, cotton ball (maxillary branch)
  • corneal reflex, blink reflex (opthalmic branch)
  • ask client to clench teeth (mandibular branch)
 
VI. Abducens
Motor

Function:
  • Extraocular movement (EOM)
  • Moves eyeballs laterally
Assessment method:
  • Assess directions of gaze
VII. Facial
Both

Function:
  • Facial expression
  • Taste (anterior two thirds of tongue)
Assessment method:
  • ask client to smile, raise eyebrows, frown, puff out cheeks, or cross eyes tightly
  • identify various tastes with the tip of tongue: sugar, lemon juice (sweet or sour)
VIII. Auditory
Sensory

Function:
  • Equilibrium
  • Hearing
Assessment method:
  • cerebellar functions: gait/coordination
  • assess hearing
  • auditory and tuning fork
IX. Glossopharyngeal
Both

Function:
  • Swallowing ability, tongue movement, taste (posterior tongue)
Assessment method:
  • ask client to move tongue from side to side and up and down
  • apply taste on posterior tongue
X. Vagus
Both

Function:
  • Sensation of pharynx and larynx
  • swallowing
  • vocal cord movement
Assessment method:
  • Assessed with cranial nerve IX
  • assess speech for hoarseness
XI. Accessory
Both

Function:
  • Head movements; shrugging of shoulders
Assessment method:
  • ask client to shrug shoulders against your resistance and turn head against your resistance
XII. Hypoglossal
Motor

Function:
  • protrusion of tongue
  • moves tongue up and down and side to side
Assessment method:
  • Ask client to protrude tongue at midline and then move it side to side
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