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A system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments.
Federal system
national government shares power with lower levels and government. EX:U.S, CANADA
Unitary system-
centralized, lower levels of government have little power independent from the national government. EX: FRANCE
Confederal system

  1. weak national government, but strong states or provinces. EX: E.U

Expressed powers(2)

  1. Specific powers granted to congress by the constitution under article 1, section 8 and the president in article 2

  2. Seventeen expressed powers of congress

Implied powers

  1. Powers implied through interpretation of the delegated powers in the “necessary and power” clause article 1, section 8.

What is the “reserved powers amendment” and what is its purpose?
powers not delegated to the national government nor prohibited to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

  • The purpose was to give each state constitution the same protections as the federal constitution

Power of coercion
the state’s power to regulate the health, safety, and morals of its citizen.
Concurrent powers
are possessed by both state and national governments. EX: the power to levy and collect taxes.
Privileges and Immunities clause
states cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give special privileges to its own residents (article lV, section 2)
Full faith and credit
Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
How is local government addressed in the U.S. Constitution?(2)

  1. Local governemt (such as city government) is not mentioned in the American Constitution.

  2. The states governments and constitutions created local governments and granted them local power.

Dual Federalism 
constitution created two layers of government: national and state.
*national government assisted states * states did most of the governing
Cooperative Federalism
marble-cake federalism “ is a concept of federalism in which national, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems, rather than making policies separately but more or less equally or clashing over a policy in a system dominated by the national government.
Regulated Federalism(4)
form of federalism in which Congress imposes legislation on states and localities
, requiring them to meet national standards.
Sought greater uniformity across the states.
Increase of unfunded mandates.
    New Federalism
    is a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states.
    commerce clause and its importance. – (necessary and proper clause
    To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof
    What was the importance of the Supreme Court case of Gibbons v. Ogden, and who wrote the opinion?
    Chief justice Marshall established the supremacy of the national governments power to regulate commerce “ among the several states “ to include all forms of interstate commerce. *based on commerce clause.
    Block grants
    accountablilty trade-offs that came with state spending flexibility
    Categorical Grants
    are grants, issued by the United States Congress, which may be spent only for narrowly-defined purposes.
    removing a program from a government level by passing it to a lower level of government
    unfunded mandate?
    is a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, with no money provided for fulfilling the requirements.
    what do contemporary arguments concerning a strong federal government focus on?
    Contemporary arguments for a strong federal government often revolve around governments role ensuring equality across states.
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