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Differential - hemolysis patterns Grows most organisms
Selective for gram (+)
Selective for staph, high NaCl content Differential for manitol fermenters Yellow = (+) Red = (-)
(+) = plasma has clots (-) = plasma is liquid
Tests for presence for of catalase Bubbles = (+) no Bubbles = (-)
Bacitracin Susceptibility
Differentiate micrococcus from staph, micrococcus, group A beta hemolytic is susceptible,
0.5 = 10(8th) cfu's/ml
Novobiocin Susceptibility
Differentiates S. saprophyticus = resistant
Staphylococcus and Microccocceae
Gram (+), Catalase (+), Cocci
Gram (+), Catalase (-) Cocci
Beta = Complete Alpha = Partial Gamma = No clearing
Bile Esculin
40% bile, inhibits all gram (+) except Strep D and entero Esculin is differential - esculin --> esculetin --> complex with ferric citrate --> black precipitate
Arrowhead produced by Group B beta hemolytic CAMP factor helps beta hemolysin of S. aureus
Sodium Hippurate Hydrolysis
Purple = (+)= glycine production Tests for hippuricase group B streptococci
6.5% NaCl Tolerance Test
Distinguishes group D entero from nonentero strep (=) = growth
Quality Assurance
Composed of QC and QI Goal = ensure whole health care system is working the best it can for the patient Steps taken in lab
Quality Control
Practices put in place to make sure results are correct, includes the routine, systematic evaluation of all procedures, materials and reagents, equipment and procedures DOCUMENTATION
Internal Controls
Procedure manuals, equipment records, personnel performance records, detailed records of all QC tests
American Society of Clinicap Pathologists, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, College of American Pathologists, Joint Commission for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards
Neisseria and Moraxella Catarrhalis
Oxidase (+), Fastidious Gram (-) Aerobic Diplococci, no endospores and nonmotile (kidney bean)
Chocolate Agar
Enriched agar that contains heated blood, released nutrients from RBC's
Modified Thayer Martin (MTM)
Selective allows isolation of N. gonorrhoeae, meningitides and lactimica Vancomycin inhibits gram (+) Trimethoprim inhibits proteus Colistin inhibits gram (-) Nystatin inhibits fungi
CTA - Cystine Trypticase Agar
Phenol Red is indictor Yellow = (+) Red = (-)
Oxidase Test
Tests for cytochrome c oxidase Purple = (+)
Triple Sugar Iron TSI
A/A = lactose/sucrose and glucose K/A = glucose only K/K = None Black precipitate = sulfur reduction --> H2S production
Indole, Methyl Red, Voges-Proskauer and Citrate
Indole Test
Tests for tryptophanase, (turns tryptophan into pyruvate, ammonia and indole) add 5 drops of kovac's reagent after incubation pink(red) ring = (+)
Methyl Red
Tests for mized acid fermentation pathway for glucose (+) = pH below 4.4 and MR turns red when added
detects 2-3 butanediol pathway, acid products turned into acetonin and 2-3 butanediol VP reagents oxidize acetonin to diacetyl which complexes with guanidine nuclei to form brick red color
Tests for sodium citrate as sole carbon source. Bromthymol blue is indicator Green at pH 6.7 = (-) Blue at pH 7.6 = (+) or growth with no color change
Tests for utilization of sodium malonate. Bromthymol Blue Blue = (+) Green or yellow = (-)
COntains eosin, methylene blue and lactose lactose fermenter --> acid production --> activate dye E. coli creates a green sheen
Crystal violet, bile salts and lactose Crystal violet and bile = selective lactose = differential Pink = lactose fermentation Controls spreading of proteus
TSI Timing
12 hours - aa broken down, production of NH3 --> pink 18-24 hours - read TSI slant
Decarboxylation of AA
Mollers Decarboxylase Base Medium - glucose, a specific AA and bromerosol purple (indicator) Organism decarboxylate the AA --> amine by product --> higher pH = purple (+) = purple --> yellow --> back to purple
Phenylalanine Deaminase
Tests for presence of PD PD will be deaminated
Semisolid medium with tetrozolium salt, turns red in presence of metabolizing organism, red away from stab = (+)
Fermentation of Inositol and Adonitol
Help speciate the members of Providencia Bromerosol purple is indicated (+) = yellow pH below 6.8
Tests for presence of urease indicator is urea and phenol red urease turns urea --> ammonia and water --> raising pH above 8.4 turns cerise = (+)
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