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levels of communication
1. intrapersonal (self talk)
2. interpersonal (between 2 or more people)
3. group (many people at same time)
4. Public speaking (unique form of group communication
During the communication process, decoding is
The interpretation of the message by the sender
factors influencing verbal conversation
educational background
culture
language
age
past experience
denotation
literal meaning of the word, or the dictionary explanation of a word
connotation
implied or emotional meaning of a word
purpose of communication
Used to share information and obtain a response. People use communication to meet their physical, psycho social, emotional, and spiritual needs
What are the elements of the communication process
1. content-actual subject matter, words, gestures, and substance of the message. The message that everyone may hear or see, open to interpretation
2. process-the active part of communication, sending, receiving, interpreting, and reacting to the message.
What are the 5 elements of the communication process
1. sender-initiates content delivery
2. message-verbal or nonverbal information the sender communicates; words, gestures, letter
3. Channel-medium used to send the message; face to face, written, audiovisual, telephone, email, text
4. receiver- the observer, listener, and interpreter of the message
5. Feedback- validates the receiver received the message and understand it as the sender intended. Maybe verbal, nonverbal, or both
What is encoding
The process of selecting the words, gestures, tone of voice, signs, and symbols used to transmit a message
What is decoding
Interpretation of the message. Relating the message to your past experiences to determine the sender\'s meaning. Uses visual, auditory, and tactile senses to decode the message
What factors influence verbal communication
educational background
culture
language
age
past experience
What factors affect verbal communication
1. Vocabulary
2. denotative vs connotative meaning-literal vs implied meaning
3. pacing of conversation
4. intonation: tone, pitch, cadence, volume. feeling behind the words.
5. clarity & brevity-select words that convey intended meaning and use fewest words possible
6. timing and revelance-timing is crucial
7. credibility-depends on the pattern of honesty, timely response, congruence between verbal &nonverbal
Factors affecting nonverbal communication
1. facial expression- communicate feelings behind a message
2. Posture and gait- clue to attitude, self concept
3. personal appearance- clue to socioeconomic status, culture, feelings
4. gestures- emphasize and clarify spoken word; can have different meanings
5. touch- convey affection, caring, concern, and encouragement. Use it with conscious awareness of the situation, environment, culture, and receptivity of the patient.
Factors that affect communication in general
environment
life span variations
gender
personal space
territoriality
sociocultural factors
rules and relationships
Intimate distance
Area immediately surrounding the patient, less than 18 inches
Personal distance
18 inches to 4 feet from the patient
Social distance
4 to 12 feet from the person
Public distance
Beyond 12 feet
What is territoriality
space and things an individual identifies as theirs
What is collaborative professional communication
To communicate effectively with nurses, physicians, and health professionals from other disciplines. Each share the common goal of providing optimal patient care. This goal should guide the manner in which you communicate at the bedside, at the nurses station, in care conferences, or via the patient record. Also for nurses to communicate with peers and colleagues in order to contribute to their professional development.
Assertive communication
1. Question care decisions openly and honestly
2. refused to play dr/nurse games
3. avoid beginning statements with self effacing statements that fail to take credit,
4. be frank flash flexible/open minded
5. use I statements which include the element of the behavior
6. focus on the issue, but the participants
7. use effective, nonverbal language
8. Don\'t invite negative responses
9. use fogging to help accept criticism w out becoming anxious or defensive
10. user negative inquiry
11. strive for a workable compromise
SBAR model, what does it stand for
S situation
B background
A assessment
R recommendation
therapeutic relationships in health care
1. focus on improving the health of the client-client centered
2. Provided necessary information about health, treatments, and care-goal directed
3. involve use if therapeutic communication-strengthens therapeutic relationship
Phases of therapeutic relationships
1. pre-interaction phase-gathering info prior to meeting the client
2. orientation phase-meeting the client; introductions; establishing rapport and trust. No second chances!
3. working phase-active phase of relationship. nurse communicates caring, patient expresses thoughts and feelings, mutual respect, honest verbal & nonverbal expressions
4. termination phase-conclusion of relationship
key characteristics of therapeutic communication
1. empathy-desire to understand, sensitivity to feelings, beliefs & situations. rewrites you to be willing to adapt your style, tone, vocabulary, behavior to create best approach fit each client situation
2. respect
3. genuineness-ability to respond honestly
4. concreteness-express messages in concrete specific terms in what you mean
5. confrontation
skills needed in a therapeutic relationship
1. appreciate experiences and believe that differ from your own
2. recognize and interpret verbal and nonverbal messages
3. guide the interaction to accomplish goals
4. Determine whether communication is taking place
5. Speak when appropriate and remain silent when appropriate
6. Adapt to the place, tone, and the vocabulary of the client
7. Evaluate your own participation in an interaction
Client factors affecting effective therapeutic communication
language barrier
unissued cognitive skills
sensory-perceptual alterations
physiological barriers
How to enhance therapeutic communication
1. listen actively
2. establish trust
3. Be assertive
4. restate, clarify, and validate message
5. interpret body language
6. share your observations to clarify
7. use open ended questions
8. use silence
9. summarize the conversation
Barriers to therapeutic communication
1. asking too many questions
2. asking why
3. changing the subject abruptly
4. Close ended questions
5. failing to listen
6. failing to explore issues in detail
7. expressing approval or disapproval
8. offering advice
9. giving false reassurance
10. stereotyping
11. using patronizing language
empathy
The ability to see into the experience of another and understand the others perspective of a situation
Therapeutic communication
being helpful by facilitating interactions that focus on the client and his concerns
positive regard
Warm, caring interest and concern for the person
What is fogging
Helps you accept criticism without becoming anxious or defensive. it acknowledges that there may be some truth to criticism but allows a person to remain the judge of her own actions
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