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_________ is found everywhere in the body and is the most abundant and widely distributed of the primary tissues.
Connective Tissue
What are the four main classes of Connective Tissue?
  • Conective Tissue Proper
  • Cartilage
  • Bone Tissue
  • Blood
What are some functions of Connective Tissues?
  • binding and support
  • protection
  • insulation
  • transportation (blood)
What are some common characteristics of Connective Tissue?
  • Common origin (mesenchme)
  • Degrees of vascularity (avascular to highly vascular)
  • Extracellular matrix
What does the extracellular matrix in Connective Tissue allow?
  • bare great weight
  • withstand great tension
  • and endure abuses of physical trauma.
What are the three main elements of Connective Tissues?
  • Ground substances
  • Fibers
  • Cells
Ground Substance
the unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibers Composed of: interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, and proteoglycans.
Cell adhesion proteins
fibronectin and laminin serve mainly as C.T. glue that allows C.T. to attach themselves to matrix elements.
Proteoglycans (structure)
Consist of protein core to which GAGs (glycosaminoglycans) are attached. Where the GAGs (- charge) stick out from the protein like the fibers of a bottle brush.
What function do the Proteoglycans have?
Form huge aggregates in which the GAGs intertwine and trap water forming a substance that varies from a fluid to a viscous gel. Higher the GAG content, the more viscous the ground substance.
What fibers are found in C.T. matrix?
  • Collagen (most abundant and strongest)
  • Elastic
  • Reticular
Collagen fibers (white fibers)
constructed of protein collagen, assemble spontaneously into cross-linked fibrils, which in turn are bundled together into thick collage fibers. Extremely tough and provide high tensile strength.
Elastic Fibers (yellow fibers)
long, thin fibers that form branching networks. Contain rubber-like protein, elastin. Help to snap C.T. back to its original shape after enduring stretching.
Reticular fibers
short, fine, fibers that are continuous with collagen fibers branching extensively, forming delicate networks that surround small blood vessels and support the soft tissue of organs. Particularly abundant where C.T. abuts other tissue types.
What are the cells that help to form the extracellular matrix of Connective Tissue?
  • Fibroblast (C.T. proper)
  • Chondroblast (cartilage)
  • Osteoblast (bone)
  • Hematopoietic Stem (RBC)

What are the Mature cells of Connective Tissue and what is their role?
Fibrocyte, Chondrocyte, Osteocyte, and Erythrocytes (RBC). They maintain the health of the tissue and can revert back to their -blast form to repair damaged tissue.
What are other cells found in Connective Tissue?
nutrient-storing fat cells and mobile cells that migrate into the C.T. matrix from the blood stream. These include defensive white blood cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes) and other cells that respond to injury such as mast cells and macrophages.
Mast Cell
oval cell that typically cluster along blood vessels. Act as sentinels to detect foreign microorganisms and initiate local inflammatory responses against them.
Macrophages
large, irregular shaped cells that avidly phagocytize a broad variety of foreign materials from molecules to entire bacteria to dust particles.
Mesenchymal cell
star shaped cell found in the embryonic tissue Mesenchyme and forms all future C.T. Some stay to provide a source of new cells in mature C.T.
Connective Tissue Proper has two  subclasses Loose C.T. and Dense C.T., what are the subtypes of those.
  • Loose C.T.- Areolar, adipose, and reticular
  • Dense C.T.- regular, irregular, and elastic.
Areolar Connective Tissue
1) supporting and binding other tissues 2) holding body fluids (ground sbsts.)
3) defending against infection (WBC)
4) Storing nutrients as fat (fat cells)
Essentially all body cells obtain their nutrients from and release their wastes into this "tissue fluid"
Areolar Connective Tissue
Where is Loose Areolar Connective Tissue Found?
Binds body parts together while allowing them to move freely over each other; wraps small blood vessels and nerves; surrounds glands; and forms the subcutaneous tissue. Present in all mucous membranes as the lamina propria.
Connective Tissue- Proper- Loose Areolar
Connective Tissue Proper - Loose - Adipose Tissue
Connective Tissue Proper- Dense- Elastic
Connective Tissue- Proper
Connective Tissue Proper- Dense- Irregular Connective Tissue
Connective Tissue Proper- Loose- Reticular
Reticular Connective Tissue
Matrix consists only of reticular fivers which form a delicate network along which fibroblasts called reticular cells are scattered. It forms a labyrinth-like storm that can support many free blood cells in lymph nodes, the spleen and bone marrow.
Brown Fat
Contain abundant mitochondria which use the lipid fuels to heat the bloodstream to warm the body. Occur only in babies.
Yellow Fat
Common fat found in all adults that is used to store energy.
Adipocytes
adipose cells that are among the largest cells in the human body. As they take up or release fat, they become plumper or more wrinkled looking, respectively. A glistening oil droplet (almost pure triglyceride) occupies most of the cell.
What is the purpose of Adipose Tissue?
  • Energy storage
  • Shock absorber
  • Insulation- poor conductor of heat to help prevent heat loss.
Fibrous Connective Tissue
another name for Dense Connective Tissues
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Contains closely packed bundles of collagen fibers running in the same direction, parallel to the direction of pull. Slightly wavy to allow some stretching. Contains few cells other than fibroblasts.
Where is Dense Regular Connective Tissue Found?
With its high tensile strength it forms tendons which attach muscles to bone and flat, sheet-like tendons called aponeuroses that attach muscles to other muscles or to bones. Also forms fascia.
Dense irregular Connective Tissue
Thicker Collagen fibers are arranged irregularly and forms sheets in body areas where tension is exerted from many different directions. Found in skin as the dermis and forms fibrous joint capsules and the bibulous coverings that surround some organs.
________ which stands up to both tension and compression has qualities between Connective Tissue proper and bone.
Cartilage
How does cartilage receive its nutrition.
It is avascular so receives nutrition by diffusion from blood vessels located in the connective tissue membrane surrounding it perichondrium.
What is found in the matrix of Cartilage?
  • large amounts of the GAGs chrondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid.
  • An exceptional amount of water 80%
  • Collagen fibers and sometimes elastic fibers.
What is the predominate cell type in growing cartilage that produces new matrix until the skeleton stops growing at the end of adolescence.
Chondroblasts
Chondrocytes or mature cartilage cells are typically found in what strucutre?
Lacunae or small cavities
Hyaline Cartilage (gristle)
Most abundent cartilage, and although it contains many collagen fibers they are not apparent. Covers the end of long bones as articular cartilage, tip of the nose, connects the ribs to the sternum and supports most of the respiratory system passages.
What type of cartilage makes up most of the embryonic skeleton before bone is formed?
Hyaline Cartilage
Epiphyseal plates are made of which cartilage?
Hyaline Cartilage
What two structures are made up of Elastic Cartilage?
The ear and epiglottis.
How is Fibrocartilage structured? And where is it found?
Rows of chondrocytes that alternate with rows of thick collagen fibers. It is found in the intervertebral disks and the menisci (knee).
What are the three main functions of Osseous (bone) tissue?
  • Binding and Support
  • Fat storage
  • Blood synthesis (especially in youth)
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