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Adaptation
the abillity to change in order to survive in an environment

infers an advantage
Physical or Biological Anthropology
study of biological evolution and varieties of humans and other primate species- past and present
Archaeology
study of the beginnings of things

( usu material remains of the culture)
Scientific Approach
direct observable, empirical evidence

what we can see hear smell taste
Scientific Method
1. Observe
2. form hypothesis
3. make predictions (inferences)
4. test via experimentation
5. repeat 3 and 4
6. if hypothesis not rejected, becomes a theory.
7. leave it open to change
Variation
the difference in species
microevolution
small scale inherited changes
macroevolution
a major change in the species usually over many generation
process of evolution
1. production and redistribution of variation (inherited differences between individuals)

2. natural selection acting on variation (these inherited differences differentially affect an organism fitness)
Forces of Evolution
1. mutation
2. natural selection
3. genetic drift
4. gene flow
Mutation
a molecular alteration in genetic material

(only way to produce evolution)
Founder Effect
when a pop. randomly has a gene that ( in large groups is less likely to be passed on) but in smaller groups (ex: Amish), the genes are fixed because they don\'t mate with groups outside of their culture.
Gene Flow
redistributes variation in a population

(reduces variation)
Genetic Drift
- a random change in allele freq. over time

- can lead to 1 allele being LOST and/or another being GAINED
Natural Selection
the process of an organism gaining or losing traits in order to acclimate it\'s environment
Variation
the difference in species

-present in all species

-needed for a pop. to survive
Adaptive Radiation
phenomenon in which occurs formation of many new species following the availability ( or development of).

evolve into many diff forms as allowed by it\'s adaptive potential & the adaptive opportunities of the ecosystem.
Gradualism
like speciation but much slower process

affects large portions of a pop.

natural selection

smooth & gradual transition
Punctuated Equilibrium
speciation but rapid process

small isolated population

done by mutation and genetic drift

long periods of stasis
Extinction
the annihilation of a species by means of natural selection or artificial means
Core Ideas of the Scientific Revolution
1. universe is heliocentric
( sun in center and we revolve around it)

2. universe is a place of \"MOTION\"

3. Nature is mechanical
Species
a group of plants/ animals that has the ability to breed and produce offspring

(coined by John Ray)
Genus
groups of similar organisms that can be grouped together

(coined by John Ray)
Carolus Linnaus classified humans as ___________ and wrote a book titled _________.
homo sapiens

Systema Naturae
The theory if use & disuse of natural selection was created by __________ .
Jean - Baptise Lamarck
The Essays on the Principle of Population was written by ________ . Also claimed that even if the population increased, the food supply would remain the same!
Thomas Matthus
Origin of Species was written by ________ and his theory was?
Charles Darwin

that the fittest species survive (fittest being able to adapt to environment)
What must be inherited for variation to occur in a species?
Traits
Gametes with 1 LESS chromosome that have been fused with a normal gamete (45 chromosomes) is known as _________ .
Monosomy
Trisomy
gametes with 1 EXTRA chromosome that fuses with a normal gamete
Gregor Mendel is famous for this experiment resulting in the creation if punnet squares.
the transferring of female statmons to the male plant resulting in a genetically modified plant
T or F? Horses and Donkeys are the same species?
false
The most basic unit of life is the _______ .
cell
Prokaryotic
pre- nucleus

found in bacteria/ algae
Eukaryotic
has a nucleus

structurally complex
Somatic cells are
body tissue and are known for having a dull set of chromosomes.
DNA is short for? What is it?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid

gives info needed to
grow itself (build itself)
operate
repair itself

pass it\'s genetic inheritance contained in DNA
What are the 4 proteins found in DNA strand?
Adenine + Thymine
Cytosine + Guanine
2 types of DNA and what are they known for providing?
Mitochondrial DNA (from mothers lineage only)

Nuclear DNA (front both parents and ALL ancestors)
T or F? Proteins are building blocks
True
Regulatory Genes
- regulates timing
- sexual maturation ( puberty)
- turns on/ off genes
- stops enzyme production (lactas)
- regulates evolution
Collagen is a STRUCTURAL PROTEIN that gives the skin it\'s plastic texture. T or F ?
TRUE
Sex Chromosomes
X & Y

-dictate biological sex (NOT GENDER)

(gender is dictated by biology and culture)
The 2 primary functions of DNA are
1. replication (copy itself)

2. to make proteins (synthesis)
The process in which sex cells and gametes are created is known as
Meiosis
Meiosis is how we make ______ and _______ .
sperm and eggs
A Zygoto is
a single cell that forms at the beginning of an organisms life
Phenotype
physical expression of the genes

(observable physical characteristics)
Zygotes
fertilized egg
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