by mtoom


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Front Back
What are the 3 ligaments of the hip joint?
  • Ischiofemoral
  • Pubofemoral
  • Iliofemoral
In knee, the ACL and PCL run from where to where?
APEX

The ACL runs from the anterior interchondylar area to the lateral condyle of femur.

PAIN

The PCL runs from the posterior interchondylar area to the medial condyle of femur.
Name the 4 bursas of the knee.
Suprapatellar bursa: Bursa above knee (communicates fluid with the synovial knee joint in most people)

Prepatellar bursa:
Bursa in front of the patella

Deep and superficial infrapatellar bursas: In front and behind the patellar ligament.
Which meniscus of the knee is connected to a collateral ligament?
The medial mensicus is connected to the tibial collateral ligament.
Name the 3 superficial gluteal muscles.

(Also, one other muscle is found here, what is it?)
  • Gluteus maximus
  • Gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus

Also: Tensor fascia lata muscle
Name the muscles innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve.
Gluteus maximus
Name the function of gluteus maximus?

Name the function of:
  • Gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus 
Maximus does hip extension

The others do hip abduction
What muscles are innervated by the superior gluteal nerve?
  • Gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus
  • Tensor fascia lata muscle
What is the function of tensor fascia lata muscle?
Medial rotator of hip joint
What is the tensor fascia lata?

What does it do?
It is a fibrous sheath that invests the muscles of the thigh.
  • The fascia lata divides the compartments of the thigh.
What is the iliotibial tract?
The iliotibial tract (or IT band) is a thickening in the lateral aspect of the tensor fascia lata.
The tensor fascia lata muscle is contained by what structure?
IT band
Name the 3 muscles of the posterior thigh compartment
  • Semitendonosus
  • Semimembranous
  • Biceps femoris
Name the function of the posterior thigh compartment
Knee flexion
Name the innervation for the posterior thigh compartment
Sciatic nerve
What are the spinal origins of the sciatic nerve?

Where does the sciatic nerve run?
Origins: L4-S3

Path:
  • Runs from spine through the greater sciatic foramen
  • Through the thigh innervating the posterior compartment
  • Splits at the popliteal fossa into the common fibular (peroneal) nerve and the tibial nerve
What are the spinal origins of the superior gluteal nerve and inferior gluteal nerve?
Superior gluteal nerve: L4-S1

Inferior gluteal nerve: L5-S2
Describe the path of the superior gluteal nerve.
Passes through greater sciatic foramen and above piriformis.

Supplies:
  • Gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus
  • Tensor fascia lata muscle 
Describe the path of the inferior gluteal nerve.
Passes through greater sciatic foramen and below piriformis.

Supplies:
  • Gluteus maximus muscle 
What 2 arteries supply the gluteal region?
  • Superior gluteal artery
  • Inferior gluteal artery 
Where do the superior and inferior gluteal arteries branch from?
From the internal iliac artery
Where does the blood supply for the posterior thigh come from?
Branches of the deep femoral artery
What are the 4 main contents of the popliteal fossa?
  • Popliteal artery and vein
  • Tibial nerve and its branches
  • Common fibular (peroneal) nerve and its branches
  • Popliteal lymph nodes and fat
What is the popliteal fossa?
Diamond shaped depression behind the knee
The lumbar plexus is formed by what spinal nerves?
The anterior rami of L1-L4.
What 3 important nerves come out of the lumbar plexus?
  • Lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh
  • Femoral nerve
  • Obturator nerve
For the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh:
  • What does it supply?
  • What nerves does it come from?
Supplies: Skin on anterolateral side of the thigh

Nerves: L2-L3
For the femoral nerve:
  • What does it supply (muscles/skin)?
  • What nerves does it come from? 
Supplies:
  • Anterior thigh muscles
  • Skin on anteromedial thigh
Nerves: L2-L4
Where does the femoral nerve run?
  • Runs deep to the inguinal ligament to enter the thigh
  • Branches run all the way down to the foot
For the obturator nerve:
  • What nerves does it come from?
  • What does it supply (compartment, types of muscle groups)? 
Nerves: L2-L4

Supplies:
  • Chief nerve of medial compartment
  • Supplies hip adductors
  • Supplies hip and knee joints
Name the 2 superficial veins of the lower limb.
  • Great saphenous vein
  • Small saphenous vein 
Describe the paths of the 2 superficial veins of the lower limb.
  • Great saphenous vein: Runs upwards, anterior to the medial malleolus, along the medial side of the leg and knee, and opens into the femoral vein in the thigh.
     
  • Small saphenous vein: Runs upwards, posterior to the lateral malleolus and drains into the popliteal vein.
Name the 5 muscles of the anterior thigh compartment.
  • Vastus medialis
  • Vastus intermedius
  • Vastus lateralis
  • Rectus femoris
  • Sartorius
For muscles of the anterior thigh compartment:
  • Which have femur as origin?
  • Which have hip bone as origin? 
Femur (origin):
  • Vastus medialis
  • Vastus intermedius
  • Vastus lateralis
Hip bone (origin):
  • Rectus femoris
  • Sartorius
For muscles of the anterior thigh compartment:
  • Which insert by the quadriceps femoris tendon onto tibial tuberosity?
     
  • Which insert onto the tibia?
Quadriceps femoris tendon onto tibial tuberosity (insertion):

All except Sartorius:
  • Vastus medialis
  • Vastus intermedius
  • Vastus lateralis
  • Rectus femoris 
Tibia (insertion):
  • Sartorius 
For the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh, what is the innervation?
Femoral nerve
For the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh, what are the 2 main functions, in general?
  • Knee extension
  • Hip & Knee Flexion
For the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh, which do knee extension, and which do hip & knee flexion?
Knee Extension

All except Sartorius:
  • Vastus medialis
  • Vastus intermedius
  • Vastus lateralis
  • Rectus femoris
Hip & Knee Flexion:
  • Sartorius 
Summarize the function of the anterior compartment of the thigh.
All muscles extend the knee joint except Sartorius (which is a knee and hip flexor)
Name the 5 muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh.
  • Pectineus
  • Adductor longus
  • Adductor brevis
  • Adductor magnus
  • Gracilis
What is the origin of all muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh?
Hip bone
What 2 locations do the medial compartment muscles of the thigh insert on?
  • Femur
  • Tibia 
Which muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh insert:
  • On the femur?
  • On the tibia?
Femur (Insertion)
  • All muscles except Gracilis
Tibia (Insertion)
  • Gracilis 
What 2 nerves innervate the medial compartment of the thigh?
  • Obturator nerve (mainly)
  • Femoral nerve
What muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh are innervated by:
  • Obturator nerve
  • Femoral nerve 
Obturator nerve

All except Pectineus
  • Gracilis
  • Adductor longus
  • Adductor brevis
  • Adductor magnus
Femoral nerve
  • Pectineus 
What is the main function of the medial compartment of the thigh?
Hip adduction
What is the adductor hiatus?
An opening in the aponeurosis of the adductor magnus muscle, leading from the anterior compartment of the thigh into the popliteal fossa.
What is the function of the adductor hiatus?
It transmits the femoral vessels
What is the femoral triangle?
Triangular depression on the front of the upper part of the thigh immediately below the inguinal ligament.
What are the bounds of the femoral triangle?
  • Inguinal ligament
  • Thigh muscles 
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