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Stratification
Ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society.
4 Forms of Stratification
1. Slavery- Economic form of inequality in which some people are property of others.
2. Caste System- One's caste determines lifestyle, prestige, and occupational choices. Fixed at birth.
3. Estate System (Fuedal System)- high status groups own land and have power based on their noble birth.
4. Social Class Systems- group of people who share a similar economic position in society based on their wealth and income.
Social Mobility
Movement of people or groups from one level to another.
False Consciousness
The wealthy have access to means necessary to create/promote a reality that justifies their exploitative actions.
Authority
Possession of some status/quality that compels others to obey.
Contradictory Class Locations
Fall between two major classes.
Prestige
Reverence and admiration given to some people in society.
Absolute Poverty
The minimal requirements for someone to survive.
Relative Poverty
One's economic postition compared with the living standards of the majority.
Near Poor (Working Poor)
Earn 25% more than poverty line, can manage unless anything goes wrong.
Competitive Individualism
Have to work your way to success.
Colonization
Invading and establishing control over a weaker country and its people in order to expand the colonizer's markets.
Social Inequality
Unequal access to resources based on status characteristics.
Priviledge
Too much access.
Subordination
Too little access.
Resources
Things that fulfill needs or wants. Food, water, $, sex, clothes, shelter.
Status Characteristics
Elements of a person that are about social categorization or group membership.
Labels, not personality characteristics. Often uncontrollable.  
Ex. social class, race, gender, sexual orientation.
Social Class
Access to economic and political resources.
Functionalist Perspective
Classes ensure best people get most important jobs.
Importance- garbage man, doctor
Difficulty- pilot, engineers.
Want good people in important and difficult jobs.
Reward-$
Doesn't explain pay in many cases.
Conflict Theory Perspective
Marx explained that classes exist because they are necessary to capitalism. Inequality is an automatic result of the system. 
Capitalists (owners) own means of production, can buy labor.
Workers can't buy labor or own means of production.  
Capitalists usually win-power-surplus workers rule in their favor cause they can lower wages.
Both's goal is to make money, with capitalists wanting to lower wages and workers trying to raise wages.
Social Class
3 Dimensions: 
1. Class- $
2. Status- prestige (worth attached)
3. Power- influence (personality) or authority (position).
All 3: Doctors, President
1 or 2: Engineer, Police Officer
0: Fast food worker, janitors.
Symbolic Interactionism
Jobs have different features and people interpret these features differently.
SES (Socioeconomic Status)
3 Components: everything is a #
1. Income- Amount of $ received in a given time period. Not just wages.
2. Education- # of years completed.
3. Occupational Prestige- Worth attached to your job: surverys-ranks-national average.
Upper-Upper Class
$1 Million a year.
Degrees: Ph. D, JD, MD, MA
Jobs: Celebrities, CEOs, Surgeons.
Most of elite culture comes from this class.
1.5% of US
Lower-Upper Class
$100,000-$999,999.
Degrees: BA, Advanced (Ph.D, MD, MA)
Jobs: Doctors, Lawyers, Managers, Engineers.
15.2% of US
Upper-Middle Class
$60,000-$99,999.
Degrees: BA
Jobs: Managers, Engineers, Scientists/Researchers.
25.8% of US
Middle Class
$40,000-$59,999.
Degrees: BA
Jobs: Teachers, Accountants, White Collar entry.
21.4% of US
Working Class
$25,000-$39,999.
Degrees: Associates, HSD
Jobs: Retail, Factory, Construction, Blue Collar.
17% of US
Lower Class (Poor)
Under $25,000.
Degrees: None or HSD
Jobs: Fast Food, Servers, Janitors, Unemployed/part time, illegal jobs (don't report income)
19.1% of US.
Poverty Line
Official US Government definition of poverty.
If under it, qualify for aid.
Calculation: 1930's formula-great depression.
-1/3 of budget on food
-Low cost food budget x 3 = #
-Adjust for family size up to 8.
-Rises yearly for inflation.
2011: 1- $10,890 or less. 4-$22,350 or less.
Problems with Poverty Line
-Assumes a person is equal to others.
-Doesn't consider costs of items like health care.
-Out of date.
-Assumes everyone has the same food budget.
-No cost of living adjustments (except HI and Alaska)
-Unhealthy
-Rising costs of other items (housing)
-Reinforces Poverty-keeps people trapped.
TANF
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families.
1996
5 years lifetime max
2 years at a time.
Stereotype
Overgeneralized belief that a certain trait, behavior, or attitude characterizes all members of a group.
Colorism
Prejudice and Discrimination based on skin color that occurs within a particular ethnoracial group. 
Ex. House slaves looking down upon field slaves.
Racial Transperancy
"Having no color" white people
Quiet Racism
Discomfort, uneasiness, and fear that motivate avoidance.
Panethnic Labels
General Terms applied to diverse subgroups that are assumed to have something in common.
Ex. Asian Americans encompasses all different asian cultures.
Affirmative Action
Govt. Policy from the 1960's that requires organizations to draft a written plan of how they will seek out minorities and women for educational and occupational opportunities.
Tracking
Grouping of students into different curricular programs, or tracks, based on an assessment of their academic abilities.
Race
Group treated as distinct in society based on biological characteristics (skin color, facial feature, hair texture) assigned social importance (people decide you are diff. from others because of the characteristics.)
Ethnicity
People who share a common ancestry.
Evidence race doesn't matter biologically
1. People use diff. categories in diff. places and times. Ex. Germans-Aryans, Irish, One drop rule.
2. Category Critieria are arbitrary-skin color is no more important biologically than other characteristics people vary on.
3. Differences between races are no larger than differences within races.
4. Concept of race was created to justify exploitation (slaves).
Xenophobia
Fear of outsiders.
Prejudice
Evaluation of group and its members based on stereotypes (judgements that aren't based on facts).
It is a thought or feeling.
Discrimination
Unequal treatment of people b/c of their status.
It is an action taken.
Racism
Prejudice and/or discrimination against a race or ethnicity.
Classism
Prejudice and/or discrimination against a social class.
Two Types of Inequality
1. Personal- Done by individuals or small groups.
2. Institutional- Done by organizations or institutions. Policies (rules) and Practices (informal pattern)
-Institutional has more impact-mass scale, power, harder to avoid.
-Institutional is harder to eliminate-so many people doing it, harder to empathize, can justify it, hard to prove.
Sex
Biological characteristics. 
Male/Female
Gender
Social expectations attached to sex, masculine/feminine.
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