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Political value
basic principle that shapes a persons opinions about politic issues and events
political attitudes
a specific view on a particular issue event and personality
What is political socialization and what are the four agencies associated with it?
Political socialization- process through which underlining political beliefs and values are formed

  1. family

  2. members of social group

  3. education

  4. politicol environment

what is political ideology and what are the two dominant political ideologies in America?
political ideology-set of underlying orentations ideas and beliefs through which we come to understand and interpret politics
Liberalism and conservatism
Although there are two dominant political ideologies in America, what do most Americans consider themselves and why?

beacuae individuals may have mixed views and positions that cannot be clearly classified
what does the marketplace of ideas refer to?
Interplay of opinions and views that takes place as competing forces attempts to prusrade as many people as possible to accept a particular position on a particular issure
Know the three important forces that shape individuals’ opinions with their ideas and the points (3)
1.government- political leaders can shape public opinion, stress certain issue and not others, influence how departments depict issues, president can use the bully pulpit
2.private groups- economic and political groups advance political ideas media- the way the media reports political events helps to shape political opinion
recent media reports on governmental corruption have shaped public opinion
What are political parties and what is their primary concern?
organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their memebers to important government offices. * political parties concerned with personal interest groups with policy
What do political parties do? (six points discussed in class) –

  1. parties recruit candidates

  2. parties organize nominations

  3. parties help get out vote

  4. parties help decide votes

  5. parties organize power in congress

  6. president depends upon support of his party

what happened to the 1st party system (4)
1st party – 1. Federalist collapse after being associated with pro-british sympathies in the war of 1812
2. leads to “era of good feeling” until 1830, due to absence of party competition
3. Jeffersonian republicans become democrats
4. 1830s Jackson wins two presidential terms
what happened to the 2nd party system
nd party- 1.1850s-60s, conflicts slavery produced sharp divisions with both the whig and democratic parties
2. whig party dissolves 1856, many supporters joined the new republican party
what happened to the 3rd party system
860 republican Abraham lincoln’s election sparks southern succession
and civil war
what happened to the 4th party system
1. Economy collapse/ republicans blamed (hoover)
divided government.
Where the presidency is controlled by one party while the other party controls one or both house of congress
Why is the U.S. referred to as having a two-party system, and what determines the number of parties?
hroughout most of its history American politics has been dominated by two major political parties
Understand why third parties do not last.
rapid social/economic change create protest parties. Ex: populist part (later merges with deomcrats)
ne party identification.
An individuals voters psychological ties to one party or another
selection bias
sample is not Representative of the population
push polling
intentional introduces selection bias
bandwagoon effect
jump on the winning canidiate
measurement error
ambiguous or poorly worded question
illusion of salency
shows that something is important to the public when in reality it is not
Why does public opinion and public policy sometimes differ?
The structure of American government was designed to moderate quick shifts in public opinion, not immediately translate them into policy. That is why governmental arrangements may produce policy decisions that lag behind prevailing opinion.
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