Challenges the idea of the border as only a dividing line between two spaces; theorizes the border as its own space and designates it for the “queer, perverse, and troublesome.” This idea is reflected in her writing, where the mixing of two different languages challenges the demand for completion/sufficiency in one language
Her writing also denaturalizes the state by dedicating her book to “Mexicans on either side of the border” and by saying that the US doesn’t end at the border due to maquiladores, factories resulting from corporate partnerships between Mexico and the US. Maquiladores are a direct example of how white culture values change the Mexican way of life, causing extreme poverty and stirring a desire to cross into the US.
Cohen: Punks, Daggers and Welfare Queens
Heteronormativity: Assuming that any sexuality or gender identity besides straight/cisgender is a variation from “the norm”
Assimilation: A movement aimed at achieving political sameness within an established system (example: gay marriage)
Transformation: A movement aimed at reimagining established structures and creating new ones
Lesbian & Gay politics: Assimilationist politics that try to liken LGBTQ* and genderqueer individuals to straight/cisgender categories (example: asking which member of a same sex couple is the man/woman)
Queer politics: The idea that established categories (male/female, gay/straight) are constantly in flux and produced by society rather than inherently existent; ‘queer’ refers to gender AND sexuality and is a transformative political movement
Identity politics: Appealing to a shared identity on which to form a group. This practice becomes problematic when it fails to be intersectional (example: first and second wave feminism)
Intersectional Analysis: An evaluation of multiple systems of oppression interact to regulate and police the lives of most people.
Haritaworn: Shifting Positionalities
How do we relate to each other in the multifaceted margins? ‘Positionality’ is concerned with relationships. Positionality reinforces an intersectional analysis because it asserts that the intersections of lived in experiences vary so greatly that it is impossible to collapse them into a single queer space.
Queering from above: queering from a place of privilege, policing the boundaries of queerness. (Ex. Lesbian telling a bi person he/she is not queer enough)
Queering from below: queering the privileged, positioning the seemingly unqueer as queer. (Ex. welfare queen, parents of a queer individual)
says we should embrace the ‘ugly’ within ourselves as magnificent, and place less importance on beauty. She would rather judge someone based on their contributions to society than their brand of designer shoes.
Morales, Driskill, Piepenza, Samarasinha: Letters to Gloria Anzaldua
Ableism: Both a colonial construct that idealizes able-bodied, white males (black people not included under able perspective due to a history of racism that pathologizes people of color on a mental, spiritual, and physical level), and a capitalist notion that bodies are only worth what they can contribute to society.
Reddy: Beyond a Freedom with Violence: The Politics of Gay Marriage in an Era of Racial Transformation
Juxtaposes 2008 as a defeat for gay marriage but a victory for black people; many claimed that black communities were responsible for the passage of prop 8
Link between law and analogy in the US: many current rulings are based on how past cases were ruled. Analogies reduce subjects to a joined governing principle rather than employing a complex consideration of all the issues involved
Substantive (acted) v. formal (written) equality in law: Prop 8 is more symbolic than tangible, i.e. not just about particular benefits or material improvements, it’s more about equal rights as an ideology, to be recognized by the state.
Civil rights movements are hierarchical in the social justice spotlight (race, sexuality, immigration)
Schneider: (Re)producing the Nation
How decolonization has permeated institutions such as marriage and fishing licenses
Sovereignty: whose right is it to restrict marriage?
The false dualism between state and nonstate: complete rejections of state authority are problematic when they ignore government effects on everyday life
Ferguson: Aberrations in Black: Towards a Queer of Color Critique
xuality analyses linked to race and materialism; definitions of culture and capital
Ferguson begins to outline the relationship between sexuality (especially non-heterosexuality) and capitalism/materialism. Focuses especially on how to disidentify (critically engage) with materialism, especially Western materialism, which imbues a strict kind of hierarchy in daily life that relies on the binaries queer activism and politics hopes to eradicate. Heavily cites Marx’s theories on prostitution as emblematic of capitalism’s effects on manhood and heteropatriarchy, which transitions into a more general discussion of labor through a queer of color lens. This eventually leads to a conception of culture (in general, and specifically African American) as a social force and as a commodity of sorts.
Foucault: The History of Sexuality Part One, “We Other Victorians”
Foucault describes how repression came to be in the 17th-19th centuries and its alignment with bourgeoisie capitalist values. He also identifies his doubts about repression – whether it is truly a historical fact, whether power necessarily relies on repression, and whether critical discourse about repression supports or denies that which it claims to combat. He then lists his aim for the book, which is discovering how things (namely, discourses) came to exist, not how they were hidden.
Part Two Foucault
Foucault discusses how desires were formulated into discourses by Christianity, and describes Victorian puritanism as a “historical accident… in the great process of transforming sex into discourse.” He then identifies how sexuality was infused into social structures such as medicine, law, education, and the home. He also brings to light how perversions and peripheral sexualities came into the mainstream, despite an apparently strict regime.
Part Three, “Scientia Sexualis”
Refers to the sudden advent of scientific, analytical approaches to sexuality and the search for truth through medicine
Part Four, “The Deployment of Sexuality”
Foucault explains that the repressive hypothesis is required for desire to exist and argues that power is always (perhaps incorrectly) seen as essentially negative and inextricably linked to repression, and that a fuller and multifaceted understanding of power is necessary to study to history of sexuality.
Juridico-Discursive Power: a way of thinking about how power operates, in a negative relationship to sex, freedom and desire.
Haritaworn: Gay Imperialism: Gender and Sexuality Discourse in the ‘War on Terror’
Interest in Muslim LGBT* due to Islamophobia
German immigration act (2005); implementation of ‘Muslim Test’
Issues with gay = white, straight = heterosexual
The liberated west v. the homophobic east, white “liberation” of Muslim gays resulting from gay masculinity, general lack of interest in progressive Muslims speaking for themselves
Those Muslims who are “liberated” are seen as having become so by “embracing the gender-progressive culture of the liberal West’” after shaking off their own supposedly repressive culture.
Assumption of homophobia legitimizes racism and paints the West as a ‘safe haven’
The language of civil rights and freedoms is highly racialized, and gays and queers are deeply implicated in this
Anti-essentialism is rarely used in racial contexts
Being an ally means getting uncomfortable with yourself
Aizura: Racism and the Censorship of Gay Imperialism
Racism is always perceived as a personal attack, ‘self-sacrifice’ among allied activists
Ekine: Contesting Narratives of Queer Africa
US involvement is still based on economic rights and adding pressures for “development” rather than on human rights.
When the West threatens to withdraw aid if African countries continue to refuse rights to LGBTI people, it not forgets its transgressions against those same people in their own countries, but also affects LGBTI people in African countries economically, causing resentment from others who would feel the effects of aid withdrawal.
Resentment caused by the notion that LGBTI issues are held above everything else
Western interventions on African politics contribute to the ‘white savior complex’, which imposes the colonial narrative of suppressing the needs and experiences of Africans on the queer African struggle
West believes itself to be the golden standard of sexual narratives and activism
"Another tension derives from LGBT imperialism that by now has fledged into a profitable NGO/donor industrial complex built on the premise of saving Africans from Africa"
Mwikya: The Media, the Tabloid and the Uganda Homophobia Spectacle
Red Pepper and Rolling Stone (Uganda’s Tabloids) published
Puar: Introduction: Homonationalism and Biopolitics
Intro; don't ask don't tell, proud Americans but they don't talk about the queers or people of color… a brand of homonationalism has been created. Following the American norms.
US sexual exceptionalism: The fantasy of permanence of this suspension is what drives the production of exceptionalism.
Moral superiority: american women as saviors and the rescuers of more "oppressed" women. (5)
And/or assumed binary of queer Musilms and arabs. (12-13)