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.Be able to define and describe a bureaucracy. Bureau (desk)
 
cracy (rule by or power)Bureaucracies provide coordination, organization, specialization, & expertise for government to perform tasks/services.
 
What does the term implementation refer to with regard to a bureaucracy?
 
Implementation - the efforts of departments and agencies to translate laws into specific bureaucratic routines. Clear instructions to departments and agencies = straightforward implementation

 
What were the two methods by which a bureaucracy may interpret vague laws?Vague law requires bureaucrats to interpret it using:
 
rule making - a quasi-legislative administrative process that produces regulations by government agencies and administrative adjudication - applying rules and precedents to specific cases to settle disputes with regulated parties
 
Be familiar with the following: independent agencies, government corporations, and independent regulatory commissions. (also know examples for each)
 
Independent agencies – are set outside departmental structure (not part of a Cabinet department)Ex.:  Central Intelligence Office (CIA)       Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Government corporation –  agency that performs a service normally provided by private sector. Ex.: U.S. Postal Service and Amtrak
Independent regulatory commission – agency given broad discretion to make rules.
 
Know the main points discussed concerning the Treasury Department (4)and the Federal Reserve System.
 
Treasury Department – administers fiscal policy (government taxing/spending), collects income, taxes, prints currency, manages debt
Federal Reserve System (the “Fed”)- twelve banks facilitates cash exchange, checks, and credit, uses monetary policies to fight inflation/deflation, authority over interest rates and lending activities.

 
As discussed in class, know the two groups national security agencies are divided into and be able to describe the agencies used as examples within each group. -i(i2)
 
Internal Security   
Department of Justice (DOJ) - prosecuting federal crimes and detaining suspected threats.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) - coordinate the communication/activities for domestic security.
External Security 
Department of State - primary mission is diplomacy
Department of Defense - directs military policy and management
U.S. Northern Command  - first command charged with homeland defense and domestic military operations
Agencies charged with securing the nation often come into conflict with American society’s expectations.
 
What are the major issues often faced by agencies charged with securing the nation?The two major issues are:
 
(1) trade-offs between respecting personal rights of individuals versus protecting general public
(2) need for secrecy in national security matters versus the public’s right to know what government is doing 
Freedom of Information Act makes more national security documents available to the public
In this act Congress attempts to balance need for secrecy in national security and the right of individuals to know what their government is doing.

 
What were the methods discussed in class for improving bureaucracy performance?(4)
 
Reinvention - make government more efficient, accountable, and effective 2) Termination - the elimination of programs. 3) Devolution ? 4) Privatization - moving all or part of a program from the public sector to the private sector.

 
As discussed in class, how can bureaucracy be controlled(4)
 
Congress can exercise oversight through: individual constituency case work, committee hearings and investigations, budgeting process.


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