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Client recall of all the food and beverages consumed during a typical 24-hour period
24-hour food recall
A process in which simple substances are converted by the body''s cells into more complex substances (eg. building tissues, positive nitrogen balance)
Anabolism
A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells or hemoglobin
Anemia
A disease characterized by prolonged inability or refusal to eat, rapid weight loss, and emaciation in persons who continue to believe that they are fat.
Anorexia nervosa
The rate of energy utilization in the body required to maintain essential activities such as breathing
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Indicates whether weight is appropriate for height
Body mass index
Describes the decay of an infant''s teeth caused by constant contact with sweet liquid from a bottle
Bottle mouth syndrome
An uncontrollable compulsion to eat large amounts of food and then expel it by self-induced vomiting or by taking laxatives
Bulimia
The amount of energy that nutrients or foods supply to the body
Caloric value
A unit of heat energy equivilent to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celcius
Calorie (c,cal, kcal)
A process in which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances (breakdown tissue)
Catabolism
A lipid that does not contain fatty acid but possesses many of the chemical and physical properties of other lipids
Cholesterol
A protein that contains all of the essential amino acids as well as many nonessential ones
Complete proteins
Child is fed when hungry
Demand feeding
A comprehensive assessment of a client''s food intake that involves an extensive interview by a nutritionist or a dietitian.
Diet History
Sugars that are composed of double molecules
Disaccharides
Difficulty or inability to swallow
Dysphagia
Through the gastrointestinal system
Enteral
Biologic catalysts that speed up chemical reactions
Enzymes
Amino acids that cannot be manufactured in the body and must be supplied as part of the protein ingested in the diet
Essential amino acids
A widespread but shortlived interest, or pratice followed with considerable zeal
Fad
A, D, E, and K vitamins that the body can store
Fat-soluble vitamins
Lipids that are solid at room temperature.
Fats
The basic structural units of most lipids made up of carbon chains and hydrogen.
Fatty acids
A detailed record of measured amounts (portion sizes) of all food and fluids a client consumes during a specified period, usually 3-7 days
Food diary
A checklist that indicates how often general food groups or specific foods are eaten
Food frequency record
An opening through the abdominal wall into the stomach
Gastrostomy
The most common form of lipids consisteing of a glycerol molecule with up to three fatty acids
Glycerides
The chief carbohydrate stored in the body, particularly in the liver and muscles
Glycogen
The process of glycogen formation
Glycogenesis
The optimal weight recommended for optimal health
Ideal body weight (IBW)
Protein that lacks one or more essential amino acids; usually derived from vegetables
Incomplete proteins
A form of anemia caused by inadequate supply of iron for synthesis of hemoglobin
Iron deficiency anemia
An opening through the abdominal wall in to the jejunum
Jejunostomy
See Calorie
Kilocalorie (Kcal)
A metric measurement referring to the amount of energy required when a force of 1 newton (N) moves 1 kg of weight 1 m of distance
Kilajoule (kJ)
See calorie
Large calorie (Calorie, kilocalorie[Kcal])
Organic substances that are greasy and insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol or ether
Lipids
Soluble compoounds made up of various lipids
Lipoproteins
Any of the minerals that people require daily in amounts over 100 mg
Macrominerals
refers to carbohydrates, fats, and protein because they are needed in large amounts (eg. hundreds of grams) to provide energy
Macronutrients
A measurement of fat, muscle and skeleton
Mid-arm muscle circumference
a substance found in organic compounds, as inorganic compounds and as free ions
Minerals
sugars that are composed of single molecules
Monosaccharides
a fatty acid with one double bond
Monosaturated fatty acids
a tube inserted through one of the nostrils, down the nasopharynx, and into the alimentary tract
Nasoenteric (nasointestinal) tube
a tube inserted by way of the nasopharynx and placed into the client''s stomach for the purpose of feeding the client or to remove gastric secretions
Nastogastric tube
a measure of the degree of protein anabolism and catabolism; net result of intake and loss of nitrogen
Nitrogen balance
an amino acid that the body can manufacture
Nonessential amino acids
Organic or inorganic substances found in food
Nutrients
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