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MUSCLES OF THE LIDS

Levator Palpebrae Superioris

Orbicularis Oculi

Keeps upper lid open. Upper lid usually covers 1mm of cornea; relaxing of levator allows eye to close during sleep
Innervation:  Cranial Nerve III; problem causes PTOSIS


Forceful Closing of Lids
Innervation Cranial Nerve VII; problem can cause exposure
PALPEBRAL FISSURE
Opening formed by lids, (30mm wide; 15mm high)
CANTHI
medial and lateral corners, where upper and lower lids meet
EPICANTHAL FOLD
covers medial canthus
PLICA SEMILUNARIS
"evolutionary" remnant; in dogs and cats, extra protective membrane
CARUNCLE
bump over plica semilunaris; has sweat and oil glands

GRAY LINE
divides anterior and posterior layers of lid margin
CILIA
eye lashes, anterior gray line (100-150 in upper, last 3-5 months)
PAPILLA
small raised area or bump, 5mm from medial canthus on lid margin
PUNCTUM
tiny opening in upper and lower papilla, opening for tear drainage
TARSUS OR TARSAL PLATE
dense connective tissue, gives form and shape to lids, contains meibomian glands
LAYERS of the LID
skin
muscles

connective tissue: tarsal plate and    orbital septum
conjunctiva
GLANDS OF LID

MEIBOMIAN


ZEIS

MOLL
sebaceous (oily) glands; grow vertically in lid, 30 in upperlid 15 in lower lid

sebaceous gland, one at base of each cilia
sweat gland, near lid margins
LACRIMAL SYSTEM
SECRETORY PORTION: forms middle layer of tear film
LACRIMAL GLAND
main producer of tears
ACCESSORY LACRIMAL GLANDS:

found in conjuctiva
Kraus & Wolfring
Collecting Portion
PUNCTUM
upper and lower; beginning of drainage system

CANALICULI
upper and lower, meet at common canliculus
LACRIMAL SAC
collects tears

NASOLACRIMAL DUCT
drains from sac to back of nose
BONY ORBIT

seven bones divided into four "walls"

height: 35 mm
width: 40mm

medial walls are parallel
lateral walls are at 45 degrees
maxilla
palatine
frontal
sphenoid
zygoma
ethmoid
lacrimal
Opening in Back of Orbit

Optic Foreman: Optic Nerve Passes through

Superior Orbital Fissure: Blood vessels and nerves

Inferior Orbital Fissure: Blood vessels and nerves
CONJUCTIVA
filmy moist membrane covering inside of lids and front of white part of eye
PALPEBRAL
on side of lids
BULBAR
on the anterior globe
FORNIX
transistion between the palpebral and bulbar (prevents contact lenses from getting behind eyeball)

contains: GOLBLET CELLS (inner layer of tear film-mucin)
accessory lacrimal glands
SCLERA
white part of eye
5/6 of eyeball; opaque; fibers called lamellae
TENON'S CAPSULE
connective tissue (bulbar fascia)
LAMINA CRIBROSA
sieve-like area at posterior of sclera, with openings for the optic nerve (retina nerve fibers) to leave eye Optic nerve is a bundle of nerves, not just one
Layers of Sclera

EPISCLERA

SCLERA PROPER

LAMINA FUSCA
outer layer, contains some blood vessels in babies: thin, appears bluish
In Elderly: yellowish from faty deposits

diffuse lamellae

inner layer, brown from melanocytes
CORNEA
1/6 of eyeball; main refracting surface; clear (transparent)
LIMBUS
1-2mm semi-opaque ring-like area connecting cornea and sclera
cornea five layers

EPITHELIUM
BOWMANS MEMBRANE
STROMA
DESCEMET'S MEMBRANE
ENDOTHELIUM
heals quickly, usually no scar
very thin
thickest part, fibers called lamellae
basement membrance

works wih Descemet's to keep cornea "Dehydrated"
middle coat

UVEA
Iris
Ciliary Body
Choroid
IRIS



muscles

sphincter

dilator


colored part (surrounds opening called pupil)

Front Surface color depend on amount of pigment melanin

back Surface always dark brown unless albino

closes pupil

opens pupil
CILIARY BODY

PARS PLICATA
CILIARY PROCESSES
PARS PLANA
CILIARY MUSCLE
2 main parts plus muscle

the folded part of the ciliary body
produce aqueous humor; attaches to zonules(holds lens in place)

flat posterior portion that meets anterior retina

controls conules,and therefore chape of lens; important in " accommodation"
CHOROID
blood vessel layer, supplies blood to most of eye, outer layers of retina
inner structures

ANTERIOR CHAMBER

AQUEOUS HUMOR

CHMABER ANGLE

TRABECULAR MESHWORK AND CANAL OF SCHLEMM
from ciliary processes

drains aqueous humor; very important in glaucoma

POSTERIOR CHAMBER
very small, passage way for aqueous to anterior chamber
RECTI and OBLIQUE MUSCLES

adduction towards nose
abdution away from nose
elevation
depression
incycloduction and depression
Excycloduction and elevation


Medial Rectus
Lateral Rectus
Superior Recetus
Inferior Rectus
Superior Oblique
Inferior Oblique
CRANIAL NERVE I

sense of smell
Olfactory Nerve
CRANIAL NERVE II

vision
Optic Nerve
CRANIAL NERVE III

Levator
Oculomotor Nerve

Innervates: Superior Rectus, Inferior Rectus, Medial Rectus, and Inferior Oblique
CRANIAL NERVE IV
Trochlear Nerve

Innervates: Superior Oblique
CRANIAL NERVE V
  • Ophthalmic portion: senstion to face and cornea
  • Maxillary portion: upper check
  • Mandibular portion: jaw
CRANIAL NERVE VI
Abducens Nerve

Innervates: lateral Rectus
CRANIAL NERVE VII
Facial Nerve

Innervates: obicularis muscle
CRANIAL NERVE VIII
Auditory Nerve
CRANIAL NERVE IX
Glossopharyngeal Nerve

Innervates part of the pharynx (muscular tube that sends foood to esophagus and iar to lungs) salivary glands, back of tongue and soft palate
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