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are obligations imposed on the government to take positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of the government
What key question sums up the meaning of civil rights protection?
What is the proper meaning of equality
Which amendments were referred to as the “Reconstruction Amendments”? (know main points discussed for each)-(3)
Amendment 13(1865)- abolished slavery
Amendment 14 (1868)- guaranteed equal protection under the law and due process of law
Amendment 15 (1870)- guaranteed voting rights for black men, but not women of any race
Define Jim Crow laws.
were adopted by the southern states to criminalize racial intermarriage, to expand segregation of public places, and to discrimnate against african americans
What did the 19th Amendment accomplish?
guaranteed women the right to vote
What happened to the Equal Rights Amendment?
to affirm that women and men have equal rights under the law proposed
Be familiar with the points discussed in class concerning Plessy v. Ferguson.(2)
- court ruled that the fourtheenth amendments “equal protection of the laws” was not violated by racial distinction it facilities were equal.
- establishes the doctrine of “ seperate but equal” public accomodations could be segregated by race, but still be considered constitutional

Be familiar with the points discussed in class concerning Brown v. Board of Education(3)
- court struck down the “seperate but equal” doctrine

  • court finds that racially segregated schools can never be equal

  • did not lead to the progress in desegregation

Know the main points discussed concerning the Civil Rights Act of 1964. -

1.barred literacy and other test as a condition for voting in the fifty states

  1. outlawed employment discrimination on the basis of sex, national orgin and race.

  2. 3. established the equal opportunity commission (eeoc)

Define civil disobedience.
Non violent breaking of un just laws
What did the case of University of California v. Bakke deal with and why was it important?(2)
Deals with the possible violation of the 14th amendment and deals with affirmative action
What does the debate over affirmative action center on?
Government policies or programs that seek to release past injustices against a specified groups by making special efforts to provide members of these groups with access to educational and employment opportunities

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