Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019

by mtoom


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Macule
  • Small spot
  • Not palpable
  • Less than 1 cm
Patch
  • Large spot
  • Not palpable
  • More than 1 cm
Papule
  • Small spot
  • Palpable (superficial, elevated)
  • Less than 1 cm
Plaque
  • Large spot
  • Palpable (superficial, elevated)
  • More than 1 cm
Nodule
  • Small bump
  • Significant deep component
  • Less than 1 cm
Tumour
  • Large bump
  • Significant deep component
  • More than 1 cm
Vesicle
  • Small bubble
  • Fluid-filled
  • Superficial
  • Less than 0.5 cm
Bulla
  • Large bubble
  • Fluid-filled
  • Superficial or deep
  • More than 0.5 cm
Pustule
  • Pus-containing bubble
  • Classified by its follicular involvement
Cyst
Sac containing fluid or semisolid material
Wheals, hives
  • Short-lived (less than 24 hours)
  • Edematous
  • Well-circumscribed papules or plaques
  • Seen in urticaria
Burrow
  • Small, thread-like curvilinear papule
  • Pathognomonic of scabies
Comedone
  • Clogged hair follicle
  • Can be open or closed
Atrophy
Thinning of epidermal and/or dermal tissue
Hypertrophic scar, keloid

Overgrowth of granulation tissue
  • Hypertrophic scars do not overgrow original wound boundaries
  • Keloids do extend beyond wound boundaries and are more chronic
Fibrosis, sclerosis
Dermal scarring/thickening reactions
Petechiae, purpura, ecchymosis
  • Red cells outside the vessel walls
  • Non-blanchable 
Teleangiectasis
Dilated superficial dermal vessels
Milium
Small superficial cyst containing keratin (usually less than 1-2 mm in size)
Scale
  • Accumulation or excess shedding of stratum corneum
  • Important characteristic in ddx since its presence implies epidermis is involved
  • Present in conditions with epidermal inflammation (eg. psoriasis, tinea, eczema) 
Crust
Dried exudate (ie. blood, serum, pus) on the skin surface
Excoriation
Loss of skin due to scratching or picking
Lichenification
Increase in skin lines/creases produced by chronic rubbing
Maceration
Raw, moist, wet tissue
Fissure
Linear crack in the skin, often very painful
Erosion
  • What tissue is involved?
  • How does it heal? 
  • Superficial open wound
  • Loss of epidermis or mucosa only
  • Usually heals without scarring
Ulcer
  • What tissue is involved?
  • How does it heal?
  • Deeper open wound with partial or complete loss of dermis or submucosa
  • Usually heals with scarring
Describe the colors:
  • Red
  • Purple
  • Brown, black, gray 
  • Red: erythematous
  • Purple: violaceous
  • Brown, black, gray: pigmented
Describe the following:
  • Hypopigmented
  • Depigmented
  • Yellow 
  • Hypopigmented: Decrease in normal brown, black
  • Depigmented: Decrease in normal brown, black
  • Yellow: Presence of lipid or jaundice 
Describe:
  • Polygonal
  • Targetoid
  • Umbilicated
  • Serpiginous
  • Verrucous
  • Polygonal: Many-sided
  • Targetoid: Like a bull's eye
  • Umbilicated: Lesion with a central dell
  • Serpiginous: Wavy like serpent
  • Verrucous: Warty-like surface texture
Configurations of lesions:
  • Linear
  • Annular
  • Arcuate
  • Polycyclic
  • Reticulate
  • Grouped
  • Zosteriform/dermatomal
  • Linear: In a line
  • Annular: In a ring
  • Arcuate: In an arc
  • Polycyclic: Multiple rings/circles
  • Reticulate: Lacy, net-like
  • Grouped: In a group
  • Zosteriform/dermatomal: Lying in a dermatome, looks like Herpes Zoster
Erythroderma
More than 90% of the body is red and inflammed + scaling
Alopecia
Loss of hair
Koebenerization
  • 3 examples 
Skin lesions along lines of trauma
  • Molluscum contagiosum
  • Warts
  • Toxicodendron dermatitis
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