Bookmark and Share

Front Back
What is social cognition, put simply?
Social cognition, put simply, is thinking about people.
We might compare ourselves to others and compete against others.
What is a cognitive miser?
A cognitive miser is a mental 'shortcut' which avoids extra thinking.
Rather than thinking everything through we come to conclusions automatically.
Unconscious processes are also referred to as what?
Unconscious processes are someitmes referred to as automatic processes. An example of an automatic process at work is involved in a stroop task whereby the font colour of the colour word does not correspond with the colour word itself. For example, the word 'black' might be written in blue font. Even when the participant is asked to name the font colour, not the word, they tend to name the word rather than the font colour. This is beacuse reading is an automatic process. The stroop task therefore measures intentional control. This task is less difficult for children who cannot read very well as their reading skills are less automatic and unconscious.
What four things are elements of automatic thinking?
1. No intention (we don't intend to think the thoughts that come automatically in to our heads).
2. No control (we don't have any contorl over which thoughts come automatically to mind).
3. No effort (automatic thoughts require no conscious effort; they just happen)
4. Efficient (automatic thoughts are efficient; the involve mental shortcuts which minimise the amount of extra thinking we have to do). This reluctance to do much extra thinking is referred to as a 'cognitive miser'.
What is a schema?
A schema is a substantive amount of information about a concept, its attributes and its relationships to other concepts.
What are scripts?
Scripts are schemas about certain events e.g. 18th birthday party. Scripts help us to define situations e.g. ;this is an awkward situation' as well as guide our responses to situations 'because this is an awkward scenario, I am going to leave the room so that I am no longer involved'.
What is priming?
Priming is activating a concept in the mind.
Priming influences subsequent thinking and may trigger _____ processes.
Priming influences subsequent thinking and may trigger automatic processes.
A concept can be presented positively or negatively. What is this referred to?
Framing is presenting a concept in a positive or negative light.
Explain the priming study by Bargh et al (1996).
Phase 1: 
Condition 1: p's given a list with polite words
Condition 2: p's given a list with rude words on
Phase 2:
P had to walk down the hall to take part in an unrelated experiment, but the experimenter is talking to someone (for a maximum of ten minutes)
Findings: p's in the rude words condition interrupted the conversation significantly more often than participants who had received 'polite priming'. Participants in the neutral condition who received no priming interrupted more than participants who received the 'politeness' priming. This study demonstrates the effects of priming on behaviour.
How do the automatic and conscious systems influence the suppression of thought?
1. The automatic system checks for incoming information which involves unwanted thoughts. 
2. The consccious system redirects attention away from the unwanted thought.
When conscious control of behaviour is relaxed, the mind is flooded with cues from the automatic system. In relation to dieting, this can trigger the ___ ___ ____ effect.
... the 'what the heck' effect, whereby the dieter indluges in eating more food than they did when they weren't dieting. Herman and Mack (1975) conducted a study which demonstrated dieters experiencing the 'what the heck effect'. Participants were either dieters (condition 1) or non-dieters (condition 2). All participants were offered milkshakes to drink and subsequently offered ice cream. Whilst non-dieters who accepted a milkshake subsequently ate LESS ice cream, dieters who accepted a milkshake proceeded to eat MORE ice cream!
The two-dimensional attribution theory proposes what?
The two-dimensionl attribution theory proposes that attributions can be internal/external and stable/unstable.
Which attribtution is both stable and internal?
Ability is an attribution which is both stable and internal.
Which attributuiion is stable and external?
Task difficulty is stable and external.
Which attribute is unstable and internal?
An attribute that is unstable and internal is effort.
Which attribution is unstable and external?
Luck is both unstable and external.
The fundamental attribution error is also called _____ bias.
The fundamental attribution error is also called correspondence bias.
Who conducted a study in to fundamental attribution error/correspondence bias involving pro castro speeches and when?
Jones and Harris (1967) conducted a study in to fundamental attribution bias/correspondence bias involving pro castro speeches.
Jones and Harris (1967) conducted a study in to fundamental attribution bias/correspondence bias involving pro castro speeches. Explain this study.
Fundamental attribution bias or correspondence bias involves an observer attributing an actor's behaviour to internal factors. In this study, students gave either a pro-castro or anti-castro speech. The speech topic was either chosen by them or assigned to them. Participants were asked to rate whether the students who gave the speeches had pro-castro or anti-castro attitudes. Results showed that students who had been assigned a pro-castro speech were rated as having pro-castro attitudes, despite the fact that they had been ASSIGNED the speech topic and had not chosen it. Meanwhile, students who had been assigned an anti-castro speech topic were perceived as holding anti-castro views. This illustrates the idea of fundamental attribution bias/correspondence bias: in this study, participants were attributing the students' behaviour (speeches) internally (to their attitudes) rather than externally (to the fact that the students had been assigned the speech topic).
Who proposed the attribution cube and when?
The attribtion cube was proposed by Kelley (1967).
What are the components of the attribution cube (Kelley, 1967)?
1. Covariation principle.
2. Consensus ('this behaviour is performed by everyone sometimes').
3. Consistency ('I don't usually perform this behaviour').
4. Distinctiveness ('I would never normally perform this behaviour in other situations, this is a very distinctive event').
What is a representative heuristic?
A representative is where we judge something by the extent to which it resembles a typical case. 'Is this scenario representative of what is typical?' * think of the heads and tails example*
What is an availability heuristic?
An availability heuristic is judging the likelihood of an event occuring by considering the ease at which relevant instances come to mind. *think of the Jaws example*.
What is a simulation heuristic?
A simulation heuristic is where you imagine the likelihood of an event occuring by considering the ease with which you can imagine that event occuring.
In olympic events, bronze medalists often appear to be happier than silver medalists. One explanation for this is that silver medalists can more easily imagine winning gold (using a simulation heuristic) and therefore may be more likely than a bronze medalist to feel as if they have 'lost out'.
What is an anchoring and adjustment heuristic?
An anchoring and adjustment heuristic is the tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event occuring by using a piece of relevant information (called an anchor) and then adjusting up or down from the anchor.
Which type of information to people pay closer attention to: statistical information or case history?
People pay closer attention to case history than to statistical information. If we wanted to write a persuasive speech or create a powerful advert, we may attract more attention from our audience by quoting case histories than using statistics.
What is a confirmation bias?
A confirmation bias is a tendency to search for information which confirms ones beliefs and ignore information that disconfirms it.
What is the conjunction fallacy?
The conjunction fallacy is the tendency to see an event as more likely as it becomes more specific. Take the following example:
'Dancer Kat buys shampoo for blonde hair. How likely is it that Kat is
a) a dancer
b) a dancer with blonde hair and blue eyes'

Based on the information given, we know that answer a is definitely true. Whilst b seems 'more convincing' because it is more specific, it is LESS LIKELY to be true than option a) because we KNOW that a) is true. This inclincation to STILL consider option b) as the more likely event is called the 'conjunction fallacy'.
Hamilton and Gifford (1976) conducted a study whereby group 1 were a majority group and group 2 were a minority group. For both groups, 2/3 of the behaviours performed were desirable. Later, participants were asked to 'recall' how many desirable behaviours group b (the minority group) exhibited. What did participants recall?
On average, participants recalled that group b (the minority group) exhibited more undesirable behaviours than desirable behaviours, despite the fact that in reality, 2/3 of the behaviours exhibited by the minority group (group b) were desirable. This is known as the minority effect; the assumption that the minority group behave in a less desirable manner.
What is the base rate fallacy?
The base rate fallacy is the tendency to ignore base rate information and be influenced by a distinctive case.
What is the gamblers fallacy?
The gamblers fallacy is the belief that a future chance effect will be effected by previous events and that things will 'even out' in the long run.
What is the false consensus effect?
The false consensus effect is the tendency to overestimate the number of people who agree with one's opinions.
What is the false uniqueness effect?
The false uniqueness effect is the tendency to underestimate the number of people who share one's most prized attributes.
What is an illusion of control?
An illusion of control is a false belief that one has an influence over how a situation will pan out.
What is 'magical thinking'?
Magical thinking is thinking of illogical thoughts that do not hold up to rational scrutiny.
What is the first instance fallacy?
The first instance fallacy is the idea that it is always better to go with one's 'gut instinct' or first answer. For example, say you wrote an answer in a test and subsequently decided it may be incorrect, you decide to leave the original answer and not edit it because of the first instance fallacy.
What is statistical regression?
Statistical regression is the tendency for scores after extreme scores in a dataset to be closer to the average.
x of y cards