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Systematic studio of human society and social interaction.
Large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectation
A relationship in which the lives of all people are intertwined closely and any one nation's problems are part of a larger global problem
Global Interdependence
Guides ordinary conduct in everyday life
Commonsense knowledge
Popular but false notion that may be used, either intentionally, or unintentionally to perpetuate certain beliefs or "theories" even in the light of conclusive evidence to the contrary.
The ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society.
Sociological Imagination
Private problems that affect individuals and the networks of people with whom they associate with frequently.
Personal troubles
Problems that affect large numbers of people and often require solutions at the societal level.
Public Issues
Nations with highly industrialized economies; technologically advanced industrial, administrative, and service occupations; and relatively high levels of national and personal income.
High-income country
Nations with industrializing economies, particularly in urban areas, and moderate levels of national and personal income
Middle-income countries
primarily agrarian nations with little industrialization and low levels of national and personal income.
Low-income countires
Groups of people distinguished by physical characteristics
cultural heritage or identity of a group based on factors such as language or country of origin
Biological and anatomical differences between male and females
meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with sex differences referred to as femininity and masculinity
Process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries.
Process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities rather than in rural areas.
Founder of Sociology, French philosopher
Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
A belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry
British sociologist that translated Comte's works. Believed a better society would emerge if women and men were treated equally, enlightened reform occurred, and cooperation existed among people in all social classes(but led by the middle class)
Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)
Herbert Spencer's belief that those species of animals, including human beings, best adapted to their environment survive and prosper, whereas those poorly adapted die out.
Social Darwinism
Emile Durkheim's term for patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person.
Social facts
Emile Durkheim's designation for a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society.
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