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Verbal communication
uses spoken word or written word
Nonverbal Communication
Uses gestures, facial expressions, touch, and other forms

Makes up majority of communication
Charecteristics of Verbal communication
Pace and Inotation
Simplicity
Clarity and Brevity
Timing and relevance
Adaptability
Credibility
Humor
Attributes of Nonverbal Communication
Personal Appearance
Posture and Gait
Facial Expression
Gestures
Email Advantages
Fast and effecient
Provides record
Can improve communication and continuity of care
Email disadvantages
Risk of client confidentionality
Socioeconomics
May not enhance communication
Factors influencing the communication Process
Development
Gender
Values and Perceptions
Personal Space
Intimate Space
touching- 1 1/2 feet
Personal Space
1 1/2 feet- 4 feet
Social Space
4 feet-12 feet
Public Space
12-15 feet
Factors influencing the communication Process
Territoriality
Roles and Relationships
Enviornment
Congruence
Interpersonal Attitudes
Communication
Means of exchanging information or feelings between 2 or more people
Encoding
how the information is expressed
Decoding
Interpreting the message recieved from some one else
Feedback
response to the message
verbal, nonverbal, or both
Verbal Communication
The spoken or written words of the message
Nonverbal Communication
The other forms or gestures used to convey a message
Theraputic Communication Techniques
  • Using silence
  • Providing General leads
  • Being specific and tentative
  • Using open-ended questions
  • Using touch
  • Restating or paraphaising
  • Seeking clarification
  • Perception checking or seeking consensual validation
  • Offering self
  • Giving information
  • Acknowledging
  • Clarifying time or sequence
  • Presenting Reality
  • Focusing
  • Reflecting
  • Summarizing and planning
Using silence
Accepting pauses or silences that may extend for several seconds or minutes without interjecting any verbal repsonses
Providing General Leads
Using statements or questions that (a) encourage the client to verbalize, (b) choose a topic of conversation, (c) facilitate continued verbilization
Being Specific and tentative
Making statemens that are specific rather than gernal, and tentative rather than absolute
Using open ended questions
Asking broad questions that lead or invite the client to explore thoughts or feelings. Open-ended questions specify only the topic to be discussed and invite answers that are longer than one or two words
Using touch
Providing appropraite forms of touch to reinforce caring feelings. Because tactile contacts vary considerably among individuals, families, and cultures, the nurse must be sensitive to the differences in attitudes and practices of clients and self.
Restating or paraphrasing
Actively listening for the clients basic message and then repeating those thoughts and or feelings in simillar words. This conveys that the nurse has listened and understood the clients basic message and also offers clients a cleaver idea of what they have said.
Seeking clarification
A method of making the clients broad overall meaning of the message more understandable. It is used when paraphrasing is difficult or when the communication is rambling or garbled. To clarify the message or confess confusion and ask the client to repeat or restate the message. Nurses also clarify their own statements and messages.
Perception checking or seeking consensual validation
A method similar to clarifying that verifies the meaning of speecific words rather than the overall meaning of a message
Offering self
Suggesting onespresence, interest, or wish to understand the client without making any demands or attaching conditions that the client must comply with to recieve the nurses attention.
Giving Information
Providing, in a simple and direct manner, specific factual information the client may or may not request. When information is not known, the nurse states this and indicates who has it or when the nurse will obtain it.
Acknowledging
Giving recognition, in nonjudgmental was, of a change in behavior, an effort the client has made, or acontribution to a communication. Acknowledgment may be with or without understanding.
Clarifying time or sequence
Helping the client clarify an event, situation, or happening in relationship to time.
Presenting reality
Helping the client to differentiate the real from the unreal.
Focusing
Helping the client expand on and develop a topic of importance.
Reflecting
Directing ideas, feelings, questions, or content back to clients to enable them to explore their own ideas and feelings about a situation
Summarizing and Planning
Stating the main points of a discussion to clarify the relevant points discussed. this technique is useful at the end of an interview or to review a health teaching session. It often acts as an introduction to the future care planning.
Stereotyping
Offering generalized and oversimplified beliefs about groups of people that are based on experiences too limited to be valid. These responses categorize clients and negate their uniqueness as individuals.
Agreeing and disagreeings
akin to judgemental responses, agreeing and disagreeing imply that the client is either right or wrong and that the nurse is in a position to judge this. These responses deter the clients from thinking through their position and may cause a client to become defensive.
Being defensive
Attempting to protect a person or health care services from negative comments. These responses prevent the client from expressing true concerns.
Challenging
Giving a response that makes clients prove their statement or point of view. These responses indicate the nurse is not considering the clients feeling.
Probing
Asking information chiefly out of curiosity rather than with the intent to assist the client. These responses are considered prying and violate the clients privacy.
Testing
Asking questions that  ake the client admit to something. These responses permit the client only limited answers and often meet the nurses need rather than the clients.
Rejecting
Refusing to discuss certain topics with the client. These responses often make clients feel that the nurse is rejecting the communication and the client as well.
Changing topics and subjects
Directing the communication into areas of self-interest rather than considering the clients concerns is often a self-protective response to a topic that causes anxiety. Closes the communication on what the client wanted to disscuss
Unwarranted reassurance
Using cliches or comforting statements of advice as a means to reasure the client. These responses block the fears, feelings, and other thoughts of the client
Passing judgement
Giving opinions and approving or disapproving responses, moralizing, or implying ones own values. These responses imply that the client must think as the nurse thinks, fostering client dependence.
Giving Common Advice
Telling the client what to do. These responses deny the clients right to be an equal partner.
Therapeutic Communication techniques
Using silence
Providing general leads
Being specific and tentative
Using open-ended questions
Using touch
Restating or paraphrasing
Seeking clarification
Perception checking or seeking consensual validation
Offering self
Giving information
Acknowledging
Clarrifying time or sequence
Persenting reality
Focusing
Reflecting
Summarizing and planning
Barriers to communication
Stereotyping
Agreeing and disagreeing
Being defensive
Challenging
Probing
Testing
Rejecting
Changing topics and subjects
Unwarranted reassurance
passing judgement
giving common advice
Tasks and skills for each phase of the helping relationship
Preinteraction Phase
Introductory Phase
Working Phase
Termination Phase
Using Silence
Accepting pauses or silences that may extend for several seconds or minutes without interjecting any verbal response
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