Cloned from: sociology 101



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The sociological perspective
a different way of looking at life and contributes to our understanding of why people are the way they are
sociologists look at:
social location ie..culture, social class,gender,race religion, age and education
external influences are:
individual experiences that are internalized and become part of thinking and motivation
origins of sociology
changes in european societies
1. Industrial revolution
2. american/frech revolution
3. application of scientific method to answer ? re. natural order and our social world
industrial revolution
traditional society and culture were transformed-people migrated from  agriculture to industry. poor pay, poor conditions, child labor
american french revolution
new ideas; individuals has inalienable rights
the scientific method
1. select a topic
2. define the problem
3.review the literature
4.form a hypothesis
5.choose research method
6.collect data
7.analyzing the results
8.share results
auguste compte
1798-1857
french
social philosopher/funtionalist
positivism-applying the scientific approach to social world, fouder of sociology; coined term sociology, did not use approach, most of his conclusions have been abandoned
Herbert Spencer
1820-1903
english
social philosopher/functionalist
societies were evolutionary, "survival of the fittest"
known for social darwinism
Karl Marx
1818-1893
germany/england
founder-class conflict or conflict perspective, struggles between bourgeoisie (capitalists) & proletariat (working class) was key to human history
C. Wright Mills
"history"
each society is located in a broad stream of events
each society has specific characteristics
C. Wright Mills
"biography"
each individuals specific experiences w/in that society
Emile Durkheim
1858-1917
france/germany
1st professor of sociology
functionalist
- studied social factors underlying suicide
-social integration & ties to social groups
-human behavior is better understoodw/in the larger social context it occurs
max weber
1864-1920
professor of sociology
-religion as the central force in social change
-The protestant ethic- greater economic development the rise of capitalism in some countries

Harriet Martineau
1802-1876
published society in america
sociology in north america
starting @ KU in 1890
university of chicago 1892
atlanta university 1897
Jane addams
north america
1860-1935
social reform
founded Hull-house serving the needs of chicagos urban poor
W.E.B. DeBois
1st afican american w/doctorate
conducted race relations is the US
helped found the NAACP

talcott parsons
developed abstract models of society to show how parts of society work together ie.. social theory
c wright mills
determined social theory was dangerous & created a pwer elite
he urged social reform
basic sociology
theory/knowledge
study/analyze
applied sociology
use sociology to solve problems
reform
blend sociological knowledge w/ practical reform
theory
general statement of how some parts of the world fit together and how they work
how 2 or more facts are releated
symbolic interactionism
microsocial
symbols used to establish meaning, define relationships,develop views. aunts,sisters,boss, teacher
3 major theories
1.symbolic interactionism
2.functional analysis
3.conflict theory
symbolic interactionism in regard to marriage
industrialization & urbanization changing meaning of marriage, divorce, traditional expectations & structure
Functional analysis
macrosocial
society composed of many parts, each with a function, creating equilibrium in a society
functional analysis in regards to marriage
changes in traditional roles and functions of the entire family;and shared family relationships the ties that bind are no longer defined
robert merton
1 manifest function
2 latent function
3 latent dysfunction
1.actions intened to help the system
2.unintended consequences that help a society adjust
3.unintended consequences that     undermine equilibrium
conflict theory
macrosocial
groups that are competing with one another for resources/control
conflict theory in regard to marriage
shifting balance of power, women become independent no longer conforming to the subservient role of the traditional wife/mother in addition to working outside the home.
macro vs micro
macro = large scale patters of society
micro= social interaction or what people do when they are in one anothers presence
research methods (6)
survey; observation/fieldwork; secondary analysis; documents; experiments; unobtrusive measures
survey
collecting data by having people answer a series of questions
step to an effective survey
determine target population/group
select sample group from population group
pick random sample or stratified (subgroup) random sample
participant observation
researcher must participate in the research setting and observe what is happening in the setting
secondary analysis
analyzing data that has been collected by other researchers
documents
books, newspapers, police reports, and records kept by various organizations
experiments
use of control groups/experimental groups & dependent/independnt variables
control group
group NOT exposed to independent variable
experimental group
group exposed to the independent variable
independent variable
factor that causes change in the dependent variable
dependent variable
factor that is changed by independent variable
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