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nervous system has how many parts, what are they?
1) central nervous system: brain & spinal cord 2) peripheral nervous system: everthing else, 12 cranial nerves, 31 spinal nerves
what is sensory?
•afferent- signals picked up by sensor receptors, carried by nerve fibers of PNS to the CNS
what is motor?
•efferent, signals carried away from the CNS, inervates muscles and glands
somatic body region refers to...?
skeletal muscle
visceral body region refers to....?
smooth and cardiac muscle, & organs
gray matter
cell bodies, neurons, dendrites, nonmyllelinated
what is somatic sensory? what is visceral sensory?
•touch , pain, vibration, pressure , temperature • stretch, hunger, nausea, taste
what is somatic motor? What is visceral motor?
• signals contraction of skeletal muscles, voluntary control • regulates contraction of smooth & cardiac muscle
what are the two main cell types?
1) neurons 2) support cells
cell body is loaded with....
rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
what does myelin do...
insulates axon and moves impulse thousands of times faster
define longevity.
can live and function for a lifetime
what are neurofibrils?
bundles of intermediate filaments
define ganglia.
clusters of cell bodies
what are dendrites?
branching from cell body transmit electrical signals toward the cell body
what is a presynaptic neuron?
conducts signal towrd a synapse
what is a postsynaptic neuron?
transmits electrical activity away from a synapse
how many types of synapses are there?
three 1) axodendritic 2)axosomatic 3) axoaxonic (dendrodendritic & dendrosomatic)
what do sodium potassium pumps do?
when axons get irritated, the pumps work to get back to normal amounts of both sodium & potassium. they work to repolarize, too muh water & sodium will kill the cell.
classification of neurons
•multipolar: posesses more than two processes, most common •bipolar: possess two processes •unipolar: possess on short, single process
what is the sensory neurons function?
transmits impulses toward the CNS, all are unipolar
what are the motor neurons function?
carries impulses away from CNS to effector organs, most are multipolar
what are interneurons?
association neurons, most are multipolar
what are the six types of neurological cells and their function?
*four in the CNS *2 in the PNS 1) astrocytes: most abundant,found between neurons & capillaries, nourishes neurons, forms blood brain barrier, aid in growth & synapse formation 2) Microglia: smallest least abundant, aka: modifed white blood cells (monocytes), engulfs microorganisms and dead neurons 3) ependymal cells: lines the spinl cord and brain, helps produce cerebrospinal fluid, bears cillia 4) oligodendrocytes: has few branches, produces myelin sheaths, one oligodendrocyte may mylinate 60 axons 1) satellite cells: surrounds cell bodies within ganglia 2) schwann cells (neurolemmocytes) surrounds axons in the PNS, form myelin sheaths around axon of PNS, myelinates axons
define nodes of ranvier.
gaps along axon
white matter
consists of myelin
cell bodies in CNS
cell bodies in PNS
bundles of axons are...
tracts in CNS
bundles of axons are......
nerves in PNS
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