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Bones that lie around the body's center of gravity
Axial skeleton
Bones of limbs or appendages
Appendicular skeleton
Bone that looks smooth and homogeneous
Compact bone
Bone composed of small trabeculae of bone and lots of open space
Spongy bone
Bones typically cube shaped and contain more spongy bone than compact
Short bones
Bones that are typically thin with two waferlike layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone
Flat bone
Example of a irregular bone?
Vertebrae
Bone that are a special type of short bones formed in tendons
Sesamoid bone
Tiny bones found between cranial bones
Wormian bone
enlarged proximal and distal ends of long bones
Epiphysis (proximal and distal)
the middle shaft area of the bone
Diaphysis
the areas in an adult bone where the epiphyses and diaphysis join
Metaphyses
In a growing bone, the metaphyses contain a layer of hyaline cartilage
Epiphyseal plate
Bone growth stops when the epiphyseal plate cartilage becomes ossified and forms a bony structure
Epiphyseal line
composed of hyaline cartilage, covers both epiphyses
Articular cartilages
the rest of the bone exterior is covered with a tough, connective tissue membrane
periosteum
The hollow center of the bony diaphysis is called
Medullary Cavity
connective tissue membrane lining the medullary cavity (both the shaft & traeculae)
Endosteum
Bone cell that removes bone tissue by removing mineral; very large cells that are found in high concentrations in the endosteum
Osteoclasts
Bone cells that is responsible for building bone tissue
Osteoblasts
a fatty substance found within the medullary cavity
Yellow marrow
found within the cavities of spongy bone and produces blood cells.
Red marrow
a large artery that enters compact bone near the middle of the diaphysis.
Nutrient artery
foramen through which the primary artery in bone flows
Nutrient foramen
fibers of the periosteum penetrating into the bone
Perforating fibers
tiny canals radiating outward from a central canal to the lacunae of the first lamella and then from the lamella to lamella
canaliculi
Canal that runs parallel to the long axis of the bone and carries blood vessels
Central canal
Canals that run into the compact bone and marrow cavity from the periosteum at right angles of the shaft
Perforating canals
mature bone cells
osteocytes
Rings of calcified extracellular matrix much like the rings of a tree trunk
Concentric Lamellae
Spaces found between the lamellae
Lacunae
Components of compact bone tissue that are arranged into repeating structures
Osteons
Area between osteons made up of fragments of older osteons that have been partially damaged
Inerstitial Lamellae
Lamellae that encircle the bone just beneath the periosteum or encircle the medullary cavity
Circumferential Lamellae
Lamellae arranged in irregular lattice of thin columns that make up spongy bone
Trabeculae
Replacement of cartilage by bone
Endochondral Ossification
A region where bone tissue will replace most of the cartilage
Primary Ossification Center
What makes up the skeletal system?
Bone tissue, cartilages, ligaments & tendons.
Large rounded projection; may be rougghened
Tuberosity
Narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
Crest
Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (found only on the femur)
Trochanter
Narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a cress
Line
Small rounded projection or process
Tubercle
Raised area on or above a condyle
Epicondyle
Sharp, slender, often pointed projection
Spine
Prominence or projection
Process
rounded projection posterior to external auditory meatus; attachment for muscles
matoid process
Smooth, nearly flat articular surface
Facet
Rounded articular projection
Condyle
Armlike bar of the bone
Ramus
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