Cloned from: Biochemistry Recall



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What mineral is associated with impaired glucose tolerance?
Chromium (Cr)
What mineral is associated with hypothyroidism?
Iodine (I)
What mineral is an important component of the enzyme xanthine oxidase?
Molybdenum (Mb)
What vitamin deficiency has the following signs: angular stomatitis, glossitis, and cheilosis?
Riboflavin (B2) deficiency
What vitamin is a component of the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)?
Thymine (Bl)
Avidin decreases the absorption of what vitamin?
Biotin. Avidin is found in raw egg whites.
What are the four Ds of niacin deficiency?
1. Diarrhea 2. Dermatitis 3. Dementia 4. Death
What mineral is an important component of glutathione peroxidase?
Selenium (Se)
What mineral deficiency in children is associated with poor growth and impaired sexual development?
Zinc (Zn) deficiency
What mineral, via excessive depositions in the liver, causes hemochromatosis?
Iron (Fe)
What vitamin is needed in the production of heme?
Pyridoxine (B6)
What vitamin is a component of the enzymes fatty acid synthase and acyl CoA?
Pantothenic acid
What vitamin deficiency has the following signs: homocysteinuria and methylmalonic aciduria?
Cyanocobalamin (B12) deficiency [Folic acid deficiency has only homocysteinuria as a sign.]
What vitamin deficiency is evidenced by the following signs: poor wound healing, loose teeth, bleeding gums, petechiae, and ecchymosis?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency (These are the signs of scurvy.)
What vitamin is given as prophylactic treatment for patients who suffer from alcoholism?
Thiamine (B1)-to prevent Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's encephalopathy
What are the three carboxylase enzymes that require biotin?
1. Pyruvate 2. Acetyl CoA 3.Propionyl CoA carboxylase
What vitamin requires intrinsic factor (IF) for absorption?
Cyanocobalamin (B12)
What mineral is a component of cytochrome a/a3?
Copper (Cu)
Leukopenia, neutropenia, and mental deterioration are signs of what mineral deficiency?
Copper (Cu) deficiency
What vitamin deficiency causes a glove-and-stocking neuropathy seen in alcoholics?
Pyridoxine (B6) deficiency
What mineral deficiency involves blood vessel fragility?
Copper (Cu) deficiency
Megaloblastic anemia and thrombocytopenia are signs of what vitamin deficiency?
Folic acid deficiency
What is the rate-limiting step of: Glycolysis?
PFK-1
What is the rate-limiting step of: Gluconeogenesis?
Pyruvate carboxylase
What is the rate-limiting step of: TCA (Krebs) cycle?
Isocitrate dehydrogenase
What is the rate-limiting step of: Glycogenesis (glycogen synthesis)?
Glycogen synthase
What is the rate-limiting step of: Glycogenolysis?
Glycogen phosphorylase
What is the rate-limiting step of: Hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt?
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD)
What is the rate-limiting step of: Fatty acid synthesis?
Acetyl CoA carboxylase
What is the rate-limiting step of: ß-Oxidation?
Carnithine acyltransferase I
What is the rate-limiting step of: Ketogenolysis?
HMG CoA synthase
What is the rate-limiting step of: Cholesterol synthesis?
HMG CoA reductase
What is the rate-limiting step of: Urea cycle?
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I
What is the rate-limiting step of: Heme synthesis?
Delta-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthase
What is the rate-limiting step of: Pyrimidine synthesis?
Aspartate transcarbomylase
What is the rate-limiting step of: Purine synthesis?
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) glutamyl amido transferase
What is the only fatty acid that is gluconeogenic?
Propionic acid
Aldose reductase converts galactose to what?
Galactitol
How many ATPs are generated from glycolysis?
8
In the mitochondria, what complex is needed in order for pyruvate carboxylase to catalyze the reaction from pyruvate to OAA?
Biotin, ATP, and COZ
What is the enzyme for the oxidative reaction in glycolysis?
Glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase
What three substrates control the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for the conversion of OAA to pyruvate in the cytoplasm?
1. Cortisol (stimulates PEPCK) 2. Glucagon 3. Guanine triphosphate (GTP)
What is released from the reaction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for the conversion of OAA to pyruvate?
C02
What enzyme deficiency causes cataracts, galactosemia, and galactosuria?
Galactokinase deficiency
The addition of D-2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (D-2,3-BPG) to HbA does what to the 02 saturation curve?
Shifts it to the right
In what benign condition do you see excretion of large amounts of fructose after ingestion?
Essential fructosuria (fructokinase deficiency)
What is the glycolysis enzyme found only in the liver?
Glucokinase
How many ATPs are generated per acetyl CoA?
12 (Not 15-that would be the answer if you included the pyruvate to acetyl CoA step.)
What enzyme is associated with the substrate-level phosphorylation in the TCA cycle?
Succinate thiokinase
The availability of OAA and acetyl CoA regulates what pathway?
TCA cycle
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