by ANS205


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Inorganic components of bone
calcium and phosphorus salts (provide hardness and rigidity to the bone)
CaPO4 Calcium Phosphate is ____% of inorganic salt in the bone
80%
Inorganic component can be removed by soaking in dilute
acid
Decalcified bone_____ (maintains/loses) structure
maintains
When the osteoid is removed the bone becomes_____ and is prone to _____
brittle, breaking
Describe Osteoblasts
bone-forming cells found in all bone surfaces, they synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components of bone matrix (GAGS), serve as a framework for the deposition of calcium and phosphate salts
Osteoblasts are the _____ for the bone to be laid down and mineral deposition
mold
Describe Osteocytes
Mature, nondividing osteoblast surrounded by matrix, lying within lacunae. They still make bony matrix but are stuck in lacunae and do not continue to proliferate, continually lay down osteoid or organic substance
Describe Osteoclasts
large multinucleate cells that are responsible for the active erosion of bone minerals. Contain large numbers of mitochondria and lysosomes (eat away at bone). Formed by the fusion of macrophages.
_____ bone consists primarily of laminated tubes called osteonal systems
compact
Each _____ consists of a central canal (blood vessels and nerves) surrounded by circular plates of bone
osteon
The lacunae is a cavity containing _______ bone cells
Osteocytes
The lamellae are plates or rings around the
central canal
Canaliculi are tiny canals that radiate from the ______ to the ______
central canal to the lacunae
All central canals are connected perpendicularly by the
Volkmann’s canals
Define ossification
formation of true bone by deposition of calcium salts in a bony matrix of osteoid tissue
Define calcification
depositing calcium salts within tissues
What is the primary center of bone formation within the shaft
center of ossification
Endochondral ossification begins
within the cartilage model
Intramembranous ossification begins
as a thin membrane
List the five steps of endochondral ossification
1. Formation of bone collar around hyaline cartilage model, 2. Cavity formed in the hyaline cartilage model, 3. Invasion of internal cavities by periosteal bud and spongy bone, 4. Formation of medullary cavity and ossification continues, secondary ossification centers appear in epiphyses, 5. Ossification of the epiphyses and hyaline cartilage only left in epiphyseal plates and articular cartilage
List four steps of intramembranous ossification
1. Ossification center appears in fibrous connective tissue membrane, 2. Bone matrix secreted within fibrous membrane and calcified, 3. Woven bone and periosteum form, 4. Results in compact bone surrounding a cencellous bone core
Bone __________ is the continuous turnover of bone in mature animals
remodeling
During remodeling bone can
shrink (atrophy), increase in size (hypertrophy), repair, rearrange
The activity of bone cells is regulated by these two hormones
parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin
The parathyroid hormone ________ serum calcium by _______ net release of calcium salts
increases, increasing
PTH increases the activity of what type of bone cells
osteoclasts (more eating of bone to add calcium in blood)
Calcitonin’s primary effect is to _______ osteoclast activity and ______ serum calcium
reduce, lowering
Calcitonin increases osteoclast activity so it is _______ calcium in the bone
depositing
Define fracture
a break in the continuity of bone
Define simple fracture
skin stays intact (unbroken)
Define open fracture
would from the exterior is in contact with the broken bone
Define greenstick fracture
one side of the bone is broken/splintered while the other side is intact but bent
Define complete fracture
bone is broken across into two parts
Define physeal fracture
located at the junction of an epiphysis and diaphysis
Define comminuted fracture
the bone is broken or shattered into smaller pieces
Granulation tissue consists of two things
fibroblasts and capillaries
Osteoblasts (from peri and endosteum) divide rapidly after injury to produce large amounts of
osteoid
Define callus
a lump of connective tissue formed around the granulation tissue
After apposition and immobilization occur, how does a fracture heal
the blood clot is invaded by connective tissue cells called granulation tissue. The osteoblasts produce osteoid and the callus forms and then in mineralized. After healing the spontaneous deformity correction occurs to return the bone to normal shape/size
The amount of spontaneous correction depends on these 5 factors
age of the animal, blood supply of the bone, degree of correction required, presence/absence of infection, amount of damage to tissues
itis
inflammation
Bone TB is an infection caused by _________ which attacks the ____ and ends of the ______
mycobacterium tuberculosis, spine, long bone
Osteomyelitis is the inflammation of bone and bone marrow that is caused by ______ that enters via blood vessels/wounds
bacteria (staphylococcus/streptococcus)
Osteodystrophy is an abnormality in bone development due to dysfunctional ___ and ___ regulation
calcium and phosphorus
Rickets occurs in young animals and osteomalacia occurs in old animals as a result of inadequate ____
mineralization of osteoid
Achondroplasia is a hereditary condition in which metaphyses fuse early but grow in diameter resulting in
dwarfism ex. dachshund dogs and dwarf cattle
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