by ANS205


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Neurons
the functional/structural unit of the nervous system. Are the signal conducting cells.
Glial/ Neuroglia Cells
neuroglia (glial) cells are the supporting cells of the nervous system. They form the myelin sheath (fatty layers) of protection around the axons of the neurons.
Central Nervous System
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous System
resides or extends outside the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord. The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs
Synapse
junction between an axon of one neuron with another neuron or another cell type (such as muscle cell)
Axon collaterals
the branches of the main axon
Myelin
a white sheath of fatty material around nerve fibers (axons)
Myelin Sheath
the many layers of cell membrane of glial cell wrapped around an axon
Nuclei/Ganglia (Explain the difference)
Nuclei are the group of nerve cell bodies (somas) in the CNS, Ganglia are the group of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
Tracts/ Fasiculi or Nerves (Explain the difference)
Tracts/Facisculi are the bundle of nerve processes in the CNS, Nerves are the bundles of nerve processes in the PNS
What are the functions of the nervous system
Regulate movement of body parts, regulate secretion from glands, collect information about external and internal environment, maintain a state of consciousness, stimulate behavior for survival
All functions of the nervous system require
rapid transmission of information
What is the other coordinating system besides the nervous system
endocrine system
what are the similarities between the two coordinating systems
Both the nervous and endocrine systems monitor stimuli and react so as to maintain homeostasis
what are the differences between the two coordinating systems
The ES acts slower than the NS (which is rapid, fast-acting) and uses blood-borne chemical signals called hormones. The ES’s actions are typically longer lasting than the NS actions (do not always persevere).
What are the two divisions of the nervous system?
The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
What parts make up the central nervous system?
The central nervous system is the center of integration and control and includes the brain and the spinal cord. The CNS is covered by the connective tissues called the meninges.
What parts make up the peripheral nervous system?
The peripheral nervous system emerges from the spinal cord and is outside of the brain/spinal cord.
What are the two types of cells in the nervous system?
Neurons and Neuroglia
What are the functions of Neurons?
are the functional/signal conducting cells
What are the functions of neuroglia cells?
supporting cells (are 10X more numerous than neurons) [includes astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes/Schwann cells]
What is the microscopic anatomy of a neuron? The neuron has a cell body (soma), specialized slender processes (axons/dendrites).
What is the input region of a neuron?
The dendrites/soma
What is the conducting component of a neuron
the axon
What is the secretory output region where neurotransmitters are released on a neuron?
the axon terminal
What are the different variations of neuron shapes?
bipolar, multipolar, pseudo-unipolar, multipolar with arborization, unipolar
Where are multipolar neurons found?
motor neurons
Where are pseudo-unipolar neurons found?
spinal cord
Where are arborized multipolar neurons found?
cerebellum
Where are true unipolar neurons found?
embryo
Which cells form the myelination in the CNS?
oligodendrocytes
Which cells form the myelination in the PNS?
Schwann cells
Name the four types of neuroglia cells
astrocytes, microglia, ependymal, oligodendrocytes
Describe the structure of astrocytes
star shaped, abundant and versatile
Describe the function of astrocytes
involve din the formation of the blood brain barrier
Describe the location of astrocytes
touch the single layer of capillaries in the brain
Describe the structure of microglia cells
large
Describe the function of microglia cells
specialized immune cells that act as the macrophages of the CNS
Describe the location of microglia cells
sentinels/army in the CNS, they interact in the brain
Describe the structure of ependymal cells
low columnar epithelial-like cells
Describe the function of epependymal cells
some ciliated which facilitates the movement of cerebrospinal fluid
Describe the location of ependymal cells
line the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord
Describe the structure of oligodendrocytes
many processes that wrap around axons
Describe the function of oligodendrocytes
produce the myelin sheath which provides the electrical insulation for certain neurons in the CNS
Describe the location of oligodendrocytes
central nervous system, surround axons on the interior of the brain and the exterior of the spinal cord
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