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abnormal or acquired breath sounds
Adeventitious breath sounds
a complete absence of respirations
Apnea
a condition that occurs when ventilation is decreased and pooled secretions accumulate in a dependent area of a cronchiole and block it
Atelectasis
shallow breaths interrupted by apnea
Biot's (cluster) respirations
abnormal slow respiratory rate, usually less than 10 respirations per minute
bradypnea
rhythmic waxing and waing of respirations from very deep breathing to very shallow breathing with periods of temproary apnea, often associated with cardiac failure, increased intracranial pressure or brain damage
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by reduced oxygen in he blood
Cyanosis
the mixing of molecues or ions of two or more substances as a result of random motion
Diffusion
difficult or labored breathing
dyspnea
a chronic pulmonary condition in which the alveoli are dilated and distended
emphysema
red blood cells, RBC's
erythrocytes
normal, quiet breathing
eupnea
to cough and spit up mucus or other materials
expectorate
the propotion of RBC's (erythrocytes) to total blood volume
hematocrit
the red pigment in the RBC's that carries oxygen
hemoglobin (Hg)
a collection of blood in the pleural cavity
hemothorax
devices that add water vapor to inspired air
humidifiers
a condition in which carbon dioxide accumulates in the blood
Hypercapnia
same as hypercapnia
hypercarbia
giving the client breaths that are 1- 1.5 times the tidal volume through the ventilator circuit or via a manual resuscitation bag
hyperinflation
done with a manual resuscitation bag or through a ventilator; increase oxygen flow (usually to 100%) before suctioning and between suction atempts
hyperoxygenation
reduced oxygen in the blood
hypoxemia
insufficient oxygen anywhere in the body
hypoxia
devices that measure the glow of air inhaled through the mouthpiece
incentive spirometers
pressure in the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs
intrapleural pressure
pressure within the lungs
intrapulmonary pressure
hyperventilation that accompaies metabolic acidosis inwhich the body attempts to compensate (give off excess body acids) by blowing iff carbon dioxide through deep and rapid breathing
Kussmaul's breathing
expansibility of the lungs
lung compliance
the tendancy of the lungs to collapse away from the chest wall
lung recoil
ability to breath only when in an upright position (sitting or standing)
orthopnea
the compound of oxygen and hemoglobin
oxyhemoglobin
the pressure exerted by each individual gas in a mixture according to its percentage concentration in the mixture
partial pressure
collection of air in the pleural space
pneumothorax
the drainage, by gravity of secretions from various lung segments
postural drainage
where gas exchange occurs between the air on the alveolar side and the blood on the capillary side; the aveolar and capillary walls form the respiratory membrane
respiratory membrane
the mucous secretions from the lungs bronchi and trachea
sputum
a harsh, crowing sound madec on inhalation caused by constriction of the upper airway
stridor
the aspiration of secretions by a catheter connected to a suction machine or wall outlet
suctioning
a surface-active agent(soap or synthetic detergent); in pulonary physiology, a mixture of phospholipids secreted by alveolar cells into the aveoli and respiratory air passages that reduce the surgace tension of pulmonary fluids and thus contributes to the elastic properties of pulmonary tissue
sufactant
abnormal fast respirations
tachypnea
the volume of air that is normally inhaled and exhaled
tidal volume
millimeters of mercury
torr
a series of vigorous quiverings produced by hands that are placed flat against the chest wall to loosen thick secretions
vibration
The function  of the respiratory system
-the function of the respiratory system is gas exchange
-Oxygen from inspired air diffuses from alveoli in the lung into the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
-carbon dioxide produced during cell metabolism diffuses from the blood into the aveoli and is exhaled
Inspiration  (function of the respiratory system)
-diaphragm and intercostals contract
-thoracic cavity size increases
-volume of lungs increases
-intrapulmonary pressure decreases
-air rushes into the lungs from the atmosphere to equalize pressure
Exhalation (function of the respiratory system)
-Diaphragm and intercostals relax
-volume of the lungs decreases
-intrapulmonary pressure rises
-air is expelled into the atmosphere
Gas Exchange
pressure differences on each side of the respiratory membranes affect diffusion
-diffusion of oxygen from alveoli into the pulmonary blood vessels
-diffusion of carbon dioxide from pulmonary blood vessels into the alveoli
Oxygen Transport
-transported from the lungs to the tissues
-97% of oxygen combines with hemoglobin in red blood cells and carried to tissues as oxyhemoglobin
-remaining oxygen is dissolved and transported in plasma and cells
Carbon dioxide transport
-continually produced in the process of the cell metabolism
-must be transported from the tissues to the lungs for excretion
a)65% is carried inside red blood cells
b)30% combines with hemoglobin as carbhemoglobin
c)5% transported in solution in plasma  and as carbonic acid
Taking respiratory history
factors that influence repiratory function:
-family history
-age
-environment
-lifestyle
-health status & meds
-stress
any history of chest pain?
-cough?
-sputum?
-difficulty breathing?
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