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Gametes are produced by _____. (Activity 13A)
Normal human gametes carry _____ chromosomes. (Activity 13A)
Meiosis I produces _____ cells, each of which is _____. (Activity 13B)
two ... haploid
Meiosis II typically produces _____ cells, each of which is _____. (Activity 13B)
four ... haploid
During _____ sister chromatids separate.
anaphase II
At the end of _____ and cytokinesis, haploid cells contain chromosomes that each consist of two sister chromatids. (Activity 13B)
telophase I
Synapsis occurs during _____. (Activity 13B)
prophase I
Homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during _____. (Activity 13B)

anaphase I
During _____ chromosomes align single file along the equator of a haploid cell.
metaphase II
At the end of _____ and cytokinesis there are four haploid cells. (Activity 13B)
telophase II

During _____ a spindle forms in a haploid cell. (Activity 13B)
prophase II
Chapter 14
Which choice below is a basic difference between Mendel's particulate hypothesis and the blending hypothesis? (Concept 14.1E-Book)
The blending hypothesis, but not the particulate hypothesis, maintained that after a mating, the genetic material provided by each of the two parents is mixed in the offspring, losing its individual identity.
If a plant variety is true-breeding for a dominant trait, then _____. (Concept 14.1E-Book)
if the plant were allowed to self-pollinate, all of the progeny would have the dominant trait
A = big apples; R = red apples; a = small apples; r = yellow apples. You have one tree that produces big yellow apples and another tree that produces small red apples. When the two are crossed, you find that half of the new trees produce big red apples and half produce big yellow apples. What are the genotypes of the parents? (Concept 14.1E-Book)
AArr and aaRr
Assume tall (T) is completely dominant to dwarf (t). If a homozygous dominant individual is crossed with a homozygous dwarf, the offspring will _____. (Concept 14.1E-Book)
all be tall
The F1 generation differed from the F2 in Mendel's experiments in that _____. (Concept 14.1E-Book)
all of the F1 showed the dominant phenotype, but only three-fourths of the F2 did
In a certain plant, the alleles A, B, and C are completely dominant to the alleles a, b, and c. A plant with the genotype AABbcc will have the same phenotype as a plant with the genotype _____. (Concept 14.1E-Book)
Pea plants are tall if they have the genotype TT or Tt, and they are short if they have genotype tt. A tall plant is mated with a short plant. Which outcome below would indicate that the tall plant was heterozygous? (Concept 14.1E-Book)
The ratio of tall offspring to short offspring is 1:1.
What is indicated when a single-character testcross yields offspring that all have the dominant phenotype? (Concept 14.1E-Book)
The parent with the dominant phenotype was homozygous.
If a homozygous dominant is crossed with a heterozygote for a given trait, the offspring will be _____. (Concept 14.1E-Book)
all of the dominant phenotype

In Mendel's monohybrid cross of purple-flowered and white-flowered peas, all members of the F1 generation had the _____ phenotype because their genotype was _____ at the flower-color locus. (Concept 14.1E-Book)
purple-flowered ... heterozygous
If the two traits that Mendel looked at in his dihybrid cross of smooth yellow peas with wrinkled green peas had been controlled by genes that were located near each other on the same chromosome, then the F2 generation _____. (Concept 14.1E-Book)
would have deviated from the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio that is predicted by the law of independent assortment
In carrying out his breeding studies, Mendel examined characters that had which of the following properties? (Concept 14.1E-Book)
All of the above.
The law of independent assortment _____. (Concept 14.1E-Book)
The first, second, and third answers are correct.
Homologous pairs of chromosomes often _____. (Concept 14.1E-Book)
contain different alleles
If each parent can produce 100 genetically distinct gametes, how many genetically distinct offspring can two parents produce? (Concept 14.2E-Book)
Pea flowers may be purple (P) or white (p). Pea seeds may be round (R) or wrinkled (r). What proportion of the offspring from the cross PpRr x PpRr will have white flowers and wrinkled seeds? (Concept 14.2E-Book)
An AABbccDdEeFF individual is crossed with an individual with the genotype AaBBCCDdEeff. What is the probability that their offspring will have the genotype AaBBCcddEEFf? (Concept 14.2E-Book)
If a heterozygous plant is allowed to self-pollinate, what proportion of the offspring will also be heterozygous? (Concept 14.2E-Book)
An individual with the genotype AABbCcDD can make how many different kinds of gametes? (Concept 14.2E-Book)
A red bull is crossed with a white cow and all of the offspring are roan, an intermediate color that is caused by the presence of both red and white hairs. This is an example of genes that are _____. (Concept 14.3E-Book)
Flower color in snapdragons is an example of incomplete dominance. When a red-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant, the F1 generation has pink flowers. If a pink-flowered plant is crossed with another pink-flowered plant, the progeny plants will be _____. (Concept 14.3E-Book)
25% red, 50% pink, and 25% white
Which choice below describes the Tay-Sachs allele at the molecular level? (Concept 14.3E-Book)

A man who has type B blood and a woman who has type A blood could have children of which of the following phenotypes? (Concept 14.3E-Book)
A, B, AB, or O
Which of the following matings cannot produce a child with blood type O? The letters refer to blood types (phenotypes). (Concept 14.3E-Book)
O x AB
A woman with type O blood is expecting a child. Her husband is type A. Both the woman's father and her husband's father had type B blood. What is the probability that the child will have type O blood? (Concept 14.3E-Book)
A single genetic locus that controls more than one trait is said to be _____. (Concept 14.3E-Book)
Sometimes, one gene pair will interact to control the expression of a second gene pair (for example, albinism and coat color in mice). In this case, the genotype for the first gene can completely obscure the genotype at the second gene. This type of gene interaction is called _____. (Concept 14.3E-Book)
Tail length in a certain species of armadillo falls along a continuum, following a normal distribution. Assuming that environmental factors do not play an important role in determining tail length, this type of variation probably reflects _____. (Concept 14.3E-Book)
polygenic inheritance
Tay-Sachs disease runs in Rebecca's family. On a family pedigree, she saw a shaded circle. This represented a _____. (Concept 14.4E-Book)
female with Tay-Sachs
A man who can roll his tongue and a woman who cannot roll her tongue have a son who can roll his tongue (R = can roll tongue; r = can't roll tongue). The son is curious about whether his father is homozygous or heterozygous for the tongue-rolling trait. Which of the following facts would allow him to know? (Concept 14.4E-Book)
His father's mother cannot roll her tongue.

Michelle and Keith are apparently normal, but their daughter was born with alkaptonuria, an inherited metabolic disorder. If alkaptonuria is like most other human hereditary disorders, the probability of their next child being born with alkaptonuria is _____. (Concept 14.4E-Book)
Tom's brother suffers from phenylketonuria (PKU), a recessive disorder. The brothers' parents do not have PKU. What are the chances that Tom, who is normal for this trait, is a carrier of PKU? (Concept 14.4E-Book)
A couple, both descended from eastern European (Ashkenazic) Jews, visit a genetic counselor before trying to have children. In view of their ethnic background, the counselor recommends that they be tested to see if they are carriers for _____. (Concept 14.4E-Book)
Cystic fibrosis, which is usually lethal before the age of reproduction, is a homozygous recessive trait. Why do cases continue to arise, even though people with the disease rarely live to reproduce? (Concept 14.4E-Book)
Because the harmful allele "hides" within heterozygous individuals, one-fourth of the offspring of two heterozygotes would be afflicted.
The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by a defective allele that _____. (Concept 14.4E-Book)
encodes a defective chloride-channel membrane transport protein

In people with sickle-cell disease, red blood cells break down, clump, and clog the blood vessels. The blood vessels and the broken cells accumulate in the spleen. Among other things this leads to physical weakness, heart failure, pain, and brain damage. Such a suite of symptoms can be explained by _____. (Concept 14.4E-Book)
the pleiotropic effects of the sickle-cell allele
When two average-height parents give birth to a child exhibiting achondroplasia, it is most likely due to a new mutation. This is because _____. (Concept 14.4E-Book)
achondroplasia is caused by an allele that is always expressed, therefore the parents must not have the allele
It is far more common to find human genetic disease caused by _____ alleles than by _____ alleles because _____. (Concept 14.4E-Book)
recessive ... dominant ... harmful recessive alleles can survive in the heterozygote without any selection pressure against them
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